陈雄山. 1964. 大气环流的一个数值试验[J]. 气象学报, 34(4):443-461, doi:10.11676/qxxb1964.044
大气环流的一个数值试验
A NUMERICAL EXPERIMENT OF THE GENERAL CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
投稿时间:1964-04-10  修订日期:1964-06-01
DOI:10.11676/qxxb1964.044
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英文关键词:
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作者单位
陈雄山 中国科学院地球物理研究所 
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中文摘要:
      考虑地形及加热作用,建立了一个大气环流数值试验准地转二层模式。在辐射加热中考虑了云对长短波辐射的影响,而假定云的出现与否仅依赖于垂直速度。在模式中放置了北半球实际的地形及海陆分布,而下垫面的温度由求解下垫面热传导方程得出。把方程组化成非线性常微分方程组,用Runge-Kutta方法在电子计算机上求解。在不计扰动的情况下,在具有年周期的太阳短波辐射的作用下,逐渐建立起下垫面纬圈平均温度梯度及基本气流。下垫面温度具有很清楚的季节变化,位相落后于太阳短波辐射一个月,求得的冬夏季的下垫面温度值与实际的气候值相当。基本气流也有明显的季节变化,夏季风速减弱,急流向北移,冬季风速增强,急流向南移,位相落后于太阳短波辐射一个多月。北半球实际的海陆分市的热力特性,在冬季能使亚洲及太平洋上空变冷,并能使大西洋及欧洲上空变暖。在非绝热加热和地形的共同作用下,在冬季出现了随时间变化着的东亚大槽和北美大槽,以及冷空气活动过程。这种冷空气活动有其偏爱地区:起源于苏联新地岛上空,并向东南方向移动。
英文摘要:
      A numerical experimental model of the general circulation of the atmosphere is constructed based on a two-level quasi-geostrophic model with the dynamical effects of topography and land-and-sea distribution and the radiation,turbulent and condensation heatings included.In the radiation heating,the influences of clouds on the long wave and short wave radiations are considered,by assuming that the appearance of cloud depends on the vertical current only.The surface temperature is obtained by solving the heat-transfer equation.The derived non-linear ordinary differential equations are numeritally integrated on electronic computer by using Runge-Kutta method.In the absence of disturbances the surface temperature and basic currents are gradually set up by the excitement of solar radiation with an annual period.The surface temperature has an apparent seasonal fluctuations,which lag behind that of the solar radiation about one month.The obtained values of surface temperature in winter and summer are in accord with the actual climatic values.The basic currents also have an apparent seasonal fluctuations,which also lag behind that of the solar radiation more than one month.In summer,the basic currents decrease in intensity and the jet stream shifts towards the north,and in winter,the basic currents increase in intensity and the jet stream shifts towards the south.In winter,the thermal properties of the actual land-and-sea distribution of northern hemisphere enable the air over Asia and the Pacific to cool down and the air over Europe and Atlantic Ocean to warm up.Under the mutual effects of topography and non-adiabatic heatings,troughs form over eastern Asia and northern America.The process of cold-air activity .is also discovered in the experiment.This cold-air activity has its favourite origin which is Novaya Zemlya in Europe.Further the cold air originated from Novaya Zemlya has its favourite southeastward track.
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