张晶,丁一汇. 1998. 一个改进的陆面过程模式及其模拟试验研究第一部分:陆面过程模式及其“独立(off-line)”模拟试验和模式性能分析[J]. 气象学报, 56(1):1-19, doi:10.11676/qxxb1998.001
一个改进的陆面过程模式及其模拟试验研究第一部分:陆面过程模式及其“独立(off-line)”模拟试验和模式性能分析
AN IMPROVED LAND-SURFACE PROCESSES MODEL AND ITS SIMULATION EXPERIMENT PART1: LAND-SURFACE PROCESSES MODEL (LPM-ZD) AND ITS “OFF-LINE” TESTS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSES
投稿时间:1996-09-10  修订日期:1997-03-09
DOI:10.11676/qxxb1998.001
中文关键词:  陆面过程模式  “独立(off-line)”模拟试验  敏感性模拟试验
英文关键词:Land-surface processes model  “Off-line” test  Sensitive experiment
基金项目:国家“九五”重中之重科技项目95-906-02-04
作者单位
张晶 国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
丁一汇 国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      文中在综合比较过去各类陆面过程模式优缺点的基础上,主要参考BATS模式,发展了一个陆面过程模式(LPM-ZD)。它具有以下几个特征:1.采用物理方程和经验解析公式相结合的方法进行土壤温度和土壤水汽的求解。在上层土壤,土壤分层较细并采用温度传导和水汽扩散方程求解,而在下层土壤,土壤分层较粗并利用经验方法处理。2.考虑了降水分布的次网格特征及其对陆面水文产生的重要影响。3.较全面地考虑了雪盖对陆面过程的各种影响:对陆面水文的影响、对土壤热传导的影响以及雪盖的高反照率对辐射收支的影响。利用3组单点观测试验资料对陆面过程模式LPM-ZD进行了“独立(of-line)”模拟试验。模拟结果表明陆面过程模式LPM-ZD具有较好的模拟性能,能够比较准确地模拟不同气候区的多种下垫面类型的陆面过程变化特点,模拟结果与观测基本一致。进而又利用一组观测资料和模式LPM-ZD进行了一系列敏感性模拟试验,试验结果表明模式LPM-ZD对一些参数的确定非常敏感,如初始土壤水汽、植被的物理特性参数以及降水次网格分布因子等,因此提高确定这些参数的准确性是改进陆面模式的重要内容之一。
英文摘要:
      Based on the existing (mainly BATS model) land-surface schemes and models,a new Land-surface Processes Model (LPM-ZD) has been developed.Ithas the following major characteristics: 1.The combination of physical equations with empirical analytical formulae are used to constructthe govereningequations of soil temperature and moisture.Higherresolution of model level and physical equations are adopted for upper soil layers,and for the low soil layers,lowerresolution of model level is adopted and empirical analytic formulae are used. 2.In the land surface hydrolog ical processes,the sub-grid distribution of precipitation and its effects are taken into account. 3.A simple snow cover model has been used in LPM-ZD which includes effects of snow coveron soil thermo dynamics and hydrology,as well as albode. By use of model LPM-ZD and three groups of point observation data,a series of "off-line" tests have been carried out.The simulation results indicate that LPM-ZD has good performance and can accurately simulate diurnaland seasonal variation of land surface pro cesses for many kinds of land-surface covers (forest,grass,crops and desert) in different climate zone.The results simulated by LPM-ZD are consistent with the observations.Later,by use ofone group of observation data and LPM-ZD,a series of sensitive experiments have been done.It is shown that LPM-ZD is much sensitive to some parameters,such as initial soil moisture,vegetation physical parameters as wellas subgrid distribution factor μ of precipitation.Therefore it is much important for land-surface processes model to define these parameters as accurately as possible.
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