周天军,宇如聪,李薇,张学洪. 2001. 20世纪印度洋气候变率特征[J]. 气象学报, 59(3):257-270, doi:10.11676/qxxb2001.028
20世纪印度洋气候变率特征
ON THE VARIABILITY OF THE INDIAN OCEAN DURING THE 20TH CENTURY
投稿时间:2000-06-12  修订日期:2001-04-02
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2001.028
中文关键词:  印度洋  气候变率  季节循环  年际和年代际变率
英文关键词:Indian Ocean  Seasonal cycle  Interannual and decadal scale variability
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(40005004);中国科学院“百人计划”项目“海气耦合模式的有效化研究”;中国科学院创新项目(KZCX2-108);中国科学院“王宽诚博士后奖励基金”
作者单位
周天军 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学与地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室LASG, 北京, 100029 
宇如聪 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学与地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室LASG, 北京, 100029 
李薇 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学与地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室LASG, 北京, 100029 
张学洪 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学与地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室LASG, 北京, 100029 
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中文摘要:
      利用时间连续性相对较为理想的GISST资料,分析了20世纪印度洋气候变率的基本特征,探讨了它与赤道中、东太平洋和西太平洋暖池区气候变化之间的联系,结果表明:(1)北印度洋SST的季节变化具有鲜明的季风特征,在西南季风爆发期,海温达到全年最冷;南印度洋SST的季节循环特征较为合乎常规,大致落后太阳辐射季节循环2个月左右;赤道印度洋沿着非洲东海岸,SST的季节变化受季风带影响显著,但在赤道中东印度洋,SST的季节循环特征不明显。(2)印度洋,特别是20°S以北的热带印度洋SST的变化,具有显著的整体一致性,自20世纪50年代中期以来持续变暖,赤道印度洋增暖了大约0.6℃。当赤道中东太平洋出现暖异常时,20°S以北的热带印度洋海域同样出现暖异常;赤道印度洋SST与Nino3区指数的相关系数,在滞后Nino3区指数4~5个月左右达到最大。(3)西太平洋暖池区SST的变化,与南印度洋西风漂流区、赤道北印度洋存在显著的正相关。在年代际的时间尺度上,赤道印度洋和西太平洋暖池区SST的变率特征极为一致。(4)南印度洋SST的年际振荡幅度,远强于热带印度洋;南印度洋的SST演变特征,从统计上看,更多地与西太平洋暖池SST变化相协调。
英文摘要:
      Unlike the Atlantic and the Pacific, our know ledge on the Indian Ocean is relatively deficient. Some evidences indicate that the Indian Ocean might have connections with the Asian-Australian monsoon system, ENSO phenomena and the African monsoon system. Thus, detecting the role of the Indian Ocean in global climate variability is of great value. Based on the Global sea-ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (GISST), which has a relatively ideal time consistency, the variability of the Indian Ocean during the 20th century, together with its link to east equatorial Pacific and Western Equatorial Warm Pool (WEWP), has been surveyed in this paper. The results show that the seasonal variation of northern Indian Ocean surface temperature (SST) is dominated by the monsoon. During the mature period of the southwest monsoon, the northern Indian Ocean surface temperature experiences its coldest stage of annual cycle. The southern Indian Ocean undergoes a routine seasonal progression, and the SST maximum lags behind the annual cycles of solar heating by about 2 months. While the seasonal cycle of equatorial western Indian ocean is strongly affected by the monsoon, the seasonal variation of middle and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean is not apparent. The Indian Ocean, especially the tropical Indian Ocean north of 20°S, experienced a typically unanimous variation and had a linear trend of sustained warming in the recent 50 years, the mean surface temperature of equatorial Indian Ocean has increased by about 0.6℃ since 1950. The warm anomaly over the Indian Ocean associated with that taking place over East equatorial Pacific concent rates mainly in the tropical Indian Ocean north of 20°S. The strongest response of the equatorial Indian Ocean SST lags the Nino 3 index about 4-5 months. It is also found that the variation of WEWP SST is positively correlated with the equatorial northern Indian Ocean and the west wind drift of the southern Indian Ocean. The decadal scale oscillation of the WEWP SST is similar to that of the equatorial Indian Ocean. While there are evidences indicating the linkage of the sout hern Indian Ocean to its counterpart of the northern Indian Ocean, unique features of the southern Indian Ocean have also been found. The year-to-year deviation of SST over the southern Indian Ocean is far stronger than the tropical part. In the view of statistics, the variation of southern Indian Ocean links coherently with the WEWM, especially on decadal scale.
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