刘晶淼,周秀骥,余锦华,丁裕国. 2002. 长江三角洲地区水和热通量的时空变化特征及影响因子[J]. 气象学报, 60(2):139-145, doi:10.11676/qxxb2002.017
长江三角洲地区水和热通量的时空变化特征及影响因子
THE TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND SENSIBLE HEAT FLUXES AND INFLUENCE FACTORS IN THE YANGTZE DELTA REGION
投稿时间:2001-04-28  修订日期:2001-08-17
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2002.017
中文关键词:  蒸散量  感热通量  时空间变化  长江三角洲
英文关键词:Evapotranspiration  Sensible heat flux  Temporal and spatial distribution  The Yangtze Delta Region
基金项目:国家自然基金重大项目(49899270);科技部回国留学人员启动经费
作者单位
刘晶淼 中国气象科学研究院, 北京, 100081 
周秀骥 中国气象科学研究院, 北京, 100081 
余锦华 南京气象学院环境科学系, 南京, 210044 
丁裕国 南京气象学院环境科学系, 南京, 210044 
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中文摘要:
      文中利用改进的KB模式和牛顿扩散方法及1961年以来的长江三角洲(28~33°N,118~123°E)地区的48个测站的常规气象资料,估计了该地区近40a来的蒸散量和感热通量。结合该地区的气温、太阳辐射等气候资料和1960年以来该区域土地资源利用变化等有关信息对该地区的潜热通量和感热通量的时空间变化特征及其可能成因进行了综合分析。结果认为该地区自20世纪70年代开始平均蒸散量有逐渐减小的趋势,与1980年相比,1998年区域年平均蒸散量减小了24mm。区域平均感热通量与蒸散量相比在此期间变化并不明显。通过对该地区的云量、太阳辐射及土地利用变化资料分析认为,造成该地区平均蒸散量减少趋势的的原因之一是用于蒸发的能量即太阳辐射的减少,而造成太阳辐射减少的可能原因为云量及大气透明度的变化所至;原因之二是该地区地表覆盖条件的改变。近20a来,该地区的水田、旱地及水域面积占总面积的比率分别减少1.353%,4.442%和2.597%,而城镇建设、工矿及其它建设用地面积则增加3.345%。耕地及水面的减小和城镇及建设用地面积的增加从整体上使区域平均蒸发量减少。
英文摘要:
      Evapotranspiration and sensible heat fluxes in Yangtze Delta Region(28-33°N, 118-123°E) are estimated for the past 40 years by modified Kotoda-Bortan(K-B) model and Newton diffusion method respectively. The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of evapotranspiration and sensible heat fluxes are analyzed combined with land-using data, meteorological data such as air temperature, solar radiation, cloudiness, etc. The results show that the regional averaged evapot ranspiration has at endency of decreasing gradually during the past 40 years. The sensible heat fluxes show no obvious variation in this period. The main reasons for the decrease of evapot ranspiration are considered first to be the variation of cloudiness in this region, which induced the decrease of solar radiation arrived on the ground surface. The second reason is the change of the land use condition. Compared with 1980, the proportion of paddy field, farmland and water surface area were decreased by 1.353%, 4.42% and 2.597% respectively, but urban land non-agriculture area was increased by 3.345% in 1998. The dif ference of evapot ranspiration from various surfaces and the change of land use made the regional averaged evapot ranspiration be decreased.
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