牛生杰,章澄昌. 2002. 贺兰山地区沙尘暴沙尘起动和垂直输送物理因子的综合研究[J]. 气象学报, 60(2):194-204, doi:10.11676/qxxb2002.024
贺兰山地区沙尘暴沙尘起动和垂直输送物理因子的综合研究
COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCHES ON SAND PARTICLE UPTAKE AND VERTICAL TRANSPORT OF SANDSTORMS IN HELAN MOUNTAIN AREA
投稿时间:2000-10-04  修订日期:2001-04-09
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2002.024
中文关键词:  沙尘暴  沙尘源  起动输送  超绝热梯度
英文关键词:Sandstorm  Uptake and transport  Superadiabatic gradient  Source of sand particles
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目“贺兰山地区沙尘暴若干问题的观测研究”(49565010)
作者单位
牛生杰 南京气象学院, 南京, 210044
宁夏气象防灾减灾重点实验室, 银川, 750002 
章澄昌 北京气象学院, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      根据4a来在贺兰山两侧沙漠和沙地测站积累的微气象和沙尘谱观测资料,结合有关文献,综合分析了沙尘起动和垂直输送的物理机制;讨论了强风的动力作用、近地面不稳定层结的热力作用和沙尘物质源特征;概述了不同尺度天气系统中上升运动特征,沙尘的沉降末速计算、沙漠地表的湍流输送特征和垂直速度资料、沙漠地表的超绝热梯度出现的频率和强度及逆湿现象,沙漠和沙地的沙尘粒度、地表性质和沙土含水率对起动风速的影响。
英文摘要:
      Physical mechanism of sand particle uptake and vertical transport is analyzed comprehensively based on micrometeorological and particle size distribution data collected in both sides of Helan mountain from 1996 to 1999. The discussion is composed of dynamic forcing of intensive wind, thermal instability and sand particle source. Updraft characteristics of mesoscale weather system, calculating methods of sand particle terminal velocity, turbulent features of sand surface, vertical wind speed, the int ensity and frequency of superadiabatic gradient and humidity inversion and sand particle size distribution of desert are analyzed. The effects of surface characteristics and water content of sand on uptake wind speed of sand particles are also discussed.
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