王遵娅,丁一汇,何金海,虞俊. 2004. 近50年来中国气候变化特征的再分析[J]. 气象学报, 62(2):229-236, doi:10.11676/qxxb2004.023
近50年来中国气候变化特征的再分析
AN UPDATING ANALYSIS OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE IN CHINA IN RECENT 50 YEARS
投稿时间:2003-07-29  修订日期:2003-11-12
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2004.023
中文关键词:  气候变化  温度  降水  相对湿度  海平面气压  风速
英文关键词:Climate change  Temperature  Precipitation  Relative hum idity  Sea level pressure  Wind speed
基金项目:“九五”国家攀登B项目:南海季风试验研究
作者单位
王遵娅 南京气象学院, 南京, 210044 
丁一汇 国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
何金海 南京气象学院, 南京, 210044 
虞俊 中国气象局, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      利用国家气象中心最近整编的中国740个站逐日资料,通过对中国温度、降水、湿度、风速、气压这5个基本气象要素变化特征较为全面的分析,揭示了近50a来中国气候变化的一些新特征。得到的新结果有:(1)近50a来,全国平均气温在20世纪80年代以后上升更为明显;西南低温区在90年代以后温度也处于上升状态;夏季的长江中上游出现明显的降温趋势。(2)全国平均年总降水量波动略有减少,但90年代以后夏季降水增加明显,尤其是长江以南地区,而华北、东北地区降水显著减少,体现了夏季风的减弱。(3)全国平均相对湿度的变化和降水相似。(4)中国几乎全部地区的风速都在显著减小,冬、春季和西北西部最明显,该区90年代的年平均风速比50年代减少约29%。风速大幅减小主要是由于亚洲冬、夏季风的减弱。(5)全国平均的海平面气压在增高,尤其是北方的冬季,这和中国风速的大幅减小有关。
英文摘要:
      Some new features of the climate change in China in recent 50 years are shown by investigating the charac teristics of the change of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and sea level pressure based on the 740 st at ions daily data in China, which is the most complete station data set in China processed by National Meteorological Center recently. The new findings includes:(1) The average temperat ure in the whole country has been increasing most obviously since 1980's in recent 50 years. Also, the temperature in South western China has been increasing since 1990's after a long-term low temperature period. However, the temperat ure in Upper-middle Yangtze basins shows the decreasing trend evidently in summer. (2) Total amount of rainfall in China has the slight decreasing trend. However, the precipitation in summer has increased significantly, particularly in the south of Yangtze River and since 1990's. At the same time, precipitation in North China has decreased greatly. These variations imply that East Asian summer monsoon has weakened. (3) The change of relative humidity in the whole country is similar with that of precipitation. Taking account of the change in temperature and precipitation, it can be found that West China is becoming warmer and wetter, especially in North west China. (4) Wind speed has de creased evidently in the whole China, especially in winter and Western North west China, where average wind speed decreased by 29% or so, comparing the wind speed in 1990's and in 1950's. The evident wind speeds decrease is associated with the weakening of East Asian winter monsoon. (5) Average sea level pressure has been getting higher in China, particularly in North China in winter. This kind of change is probably relative to wind speeds great decrease. (6) There is a special area on Tibet an plateau situated at 85.0-95.0°E and 35-40°N, where temperature, precipit at ion and sea surface pressure has increased, whereas, wind speed decreased which is mostevident in china. It is worth to study further what caused the great change.
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