柳艳菊 ,丁一汇. 2005. 1998年南海季风爆发时期中尺度对流系统 的研究:Ⅱ中尺度对流系统对大尺度场的作用[J]. 气象学报, 63(4):443-454, doi:10.11676/qxxb2005.044
1998年南海季风爆发时期中尺度对流系统 的研究:Ⅱ中尺度对流系统对大尺度场的作用
A STUDY ON THE MESO-SCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS DURINGSUMMER MONSOON ONSET OVER THE SOUTH CHINA SEA IN 1998:Ⅱ EFFECT OF THE MESO-SCALE CONVECTIVESYSTEMS ON LARGE-SCALE FIELDS
投稿时间:2004-10-10  修订日期:2005-01-04
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2005.044
中文关键词:  中尺度对流,视热源,视水汽汇,反馈
英文关键词:Meso-scale convection, Apparent heat sources, App arent moisture sinks, Feedback.
基金项目:中国科学技术部攀登项目A“南海季风试验”
作者单位
柳艳菊 中国科学院大气物理研究所北京100029国家气候中心北京100081中国科学院 研究生院北京100039 
丁一汇 国家气候中心北京100081 
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中文摘要:
      通过对1998年南海季风爆发过程中大尺度风场、温度场、厚度场、地面气压场以及视热源与 视水汽汇的演变分析研究了对流活动对大尺度场的作用,结果表明: 大尺度环流与中尺度对 流活动之间可能存在着一种正反馈机制。在季风爆发早期,大尺度背景与中尺度对流活动 的关系主要表现为前者为季风爆发以及中尺度对流活动的发生提供有利的天气和动力条件; 季风爆发后期持续的大范围中尺度对流活动反过来会对大尺度环流存在明显的反馈作用。由 对流活动强烈发展产生的凝结潜热释放在南海北部造成了显著的大气加热,使对流层中上层 出现一明显的加热中心,这导致:(1)南海上空经向温度梯度由高层向低层发生反向,形成 北高南低的温度梯度,从而使大尺度环流发生季节性改变;(2)相应南海北部地面气压不 断加深,形成宽广的季风槽和明显的减压区,促使副热带高压从南海地区最后撤离;(3) 随着中低层低压环流的不断发展,对流系统和降水区进一步加强并向南扩展,有利于南海季 风在南海中、南部地区爆发和维持;(4)季风槽的加深使其南侧的季风气流与水汽输送进 一步加强,促使季风爆发过程达到盛期。
英文摘要:
      The apparent heat sources, apparent moisture sinks and large-scale wind, temper ature as well as surface pressure during the summer monsoon onset over the north ern South China Sea (SCS) in 1998 were investigated. The results suggested that there was a kind of positive feedback mechanism between large-scale circulation s and meso-scale convective systems (MCSs ). At the early stage of the monsoon onset, the large-scale background provided favorable synoptic and dynamic cond itions for the summer monsoon onset and formation of meso scale convective acti vities; whereas after the summer monsoon onset, occurrence of persistent and large-scale meso-scale convective activities produced obvious feedback effect on large scale circulations. Because of the release of latent heating driven by e nhanced convective activities, the intense atmospheric heating appeared over the northern SCS, which resulted in: (1) the meridional temperature gradient over the SCS reversed from upper-level to low-level and then the large-scale circul ations were changed seasonally;(2) correspondingly, the surface pressure over the northern SCS deepened continually and formed broad monsoon trough and obvious pressure reducing areas, thus making the subtropical high moving out of the SCS eventually; (3) with the development of the low-pressure circulations in the mi ddle and low troposphere, the MCSs further enhanced and extended southward,which was favorable to the SCS monsoon onset and maintaining over the middle and sout hern SCS; (4) the deepening of monsoon trough promoted strengthening of the monsoon flow and moisture transport on the southern side of it, consequently the monsoon onset reaching prevalence.
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