李兴宇 ,洪延超. 2005. 三维冰雹云数值催化模式改进与个例模拟研究[J]. 气象学报, 63(6):874-888, doi:10.11676/qxxb2005.084
三维冰雹云数值催化模式改进与个例模拟研究
THE IMPROVEMENT OF 3D HAIL CLOUD MODEL AND CASE SIMULATION
投稿时间:2004-12-20  修订日期:2005-05-15
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2005.084
中文关键词:  模式改进,催化功能,人工冰晶,转化特征,防雹机制
英文关键词:Model improvement, Seeding function, Seed produced ice crystal, Converting character, Hail suppression mechanism.
基金项目:国家“十五”攻关课题“人工增雨技术研究及示范”(2001BA610A-06)和国家自然科学基金重点项目“人工增雨机理与播撒方法研究”(40333033)
作者单位
李兴宇 中国科学院大气物理研究所北京100029中国科学院研究生院北京100039 
洪延超 中国科学院大气物理研究所北京100029 
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中文摘要:
      鉴于播撒冰核形成的冰晶与自然冰晶谱型不同,对三维冰雹云催化模式人工引晶物理过程参数化部分进行了改进,将人工引入的冰晶单独作为预报量处理,导出人工冰晶与其他粒子发生的微物理过程的参数化方程。分析了改进模式的催化功能及人工冰晶的微物理过程及其在催化防雹中的作用。结果表明,在同样催化条件下,改进模式的催化效果优于原模式。水汽在碘化银粒子上核化是产生人工冰晶的主要过程。人工冰晶的空间分布特征表明,它与云水和雨水接触的比例要比自然冰晶高得多,因此人工冰晶收集过冷云水增长是其与自然冰晶最大的差别。与自然冰晶相比,人工冰晶向霰转化的数量多,通过人工冰晶形成的冻滴也多。自动转化是消耗人工冰晶的最重要的物理过程。人工冰晶减雹机制是:对雹云催化后,人工冰晶增加使雪、霰和冻滴增加,转化成冰雹的数量也增加,冰雹的尺度减少,降雹强度和降雹动能通量就减少。
英文摘要:
      In view of the spectrum difference between seeding ice crystal and natural ice crystal,to improve 3D hail cloud numerical seeding model is improved: seeding ice crystal is treated as a separate predictand in the microphysics processes parameterization, and parameterization equations of processes which contact with seeding ice crystal are also deduced. After analyzing the seeding function of the improved model and the microphysics processes of seeding ice crystal, as well as its effect in hail suppression. The results show that the improved model′s seeding effect is better than the former model in the same seeding conditions. Nucleation of vapor on AgI is the principal process to produce seeding ice crystal. The spacial distribution of seeding ice crystal, it has a better condition to contact with cloud water and rain water than natural ice crystal, so collecting the super-cooled cloud water is the main difference in growing way between seeding ice crystal and natural ice crystal. Compared with the natural ice crystal,seeding ice crystal has a high converting rate into graupel and by it contact with supercooled raindrop a large quantity of freezing drops can be produced. Automatic converting process is the main processes to decrease seeding ice crystal. The mechanism of hail suppression is that a number of seeding ice crystal are produced by seeding, and so that graupel and frozen drops increased quantitatively, and amount of hailstone from converting of graupel and frozen drop increased, too. Thus, hailtone size is decreased, as a result intensity of hailfall and the kinetic energy flux of hailstone decrease.
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