岳彩军. 2008. 梅雨锋气旋暴雨的 Q 矢量分析:个例研究[J]. 气象学报, 66(1):35-49, doi:10.11676/qxxb2008.004
梅雨锋气旋暴雨的 Q 矢量分析:个例研究
The Q vector analysis of the heavy rainfall from meiyu front cyclone: a case study
投稿时间:2006-04-11  修订日期:2006-08-18
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2008.004
中文关键词:  Q矢量分析,QN矢量,QN矢量分解,梅雨锋气旋,暴雨
英文关键词:Q vector analysis, QN vector, QN vector decomposition, Meiyu front cyclone, heavy rainfall
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(40405009、40075009、40205008),上海市气象局科研开发项目(04A06),江苏省气象灾害重点实验室(南京信息工程大学)开放课题(KJS0602)
作者单位
岳彩军 上海台风研究所上海 200030 
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中文摘要:
      文中对修改的Q矢量(Q*)进行转化、处理后,所得Q矢量(记为QN矢量)与准地转Q矢量具有类似的计算表达式,但其完全用实际风场资料进行计算。结合1991年7月5日20:00-6日20:00的一次典型江淮梅雨锋气旋暴雨过程比较分析表明, QN矢量诊断能力较准地转Q矢量优越,且700 hPa QN矢量散度辐合场对同时期地面降水场的水平分布特征具有较好指示作用。将QN矢量沿以等高线为参照线的自然坐标系进行分解(简称为PG分解),所得各项QNalst矢量(沿流伸展项)、QNcurv矢量(曲率项)、QNshdv矢量(切变平流项)及QNcrst矢量(穿流伸展项)具有明确物理意义。对1991年7月5日20:00-6日20:00此次江淮梅雨锋气旋暴雨过程进行QN矢量PG分解研究表明, QN矢量PG分解可以揭示出天气现象过程中“总”的QN矢量(即QN矢量)难以揭示的潜在物理机制。具体地讲,在梅雨锋气旋不同阶段,QNalst矢量散度场的水平分布特征都与总QN矢量散度场相似,其散度辐合场在总QN矢量散度辐合场中都占有较大比例,对总QN矢量散度对垂直运动产生的激发与强迫作用贡献大,对梅雨锋气旋引发降水的发生始终都起着主要的促进强迫作用。QNcurv矢量在整个梅雨锋气旋暴雨演变过程中,对降水发生的促进作用逐渐减小,直至起到抑制作用。QNshdv矢量对降水发生的促进作用则随着梅雨锋气旋发生发展而明显增强,但随着梅雨锋气旋的东移衰亡,其对降水发生的促进作用迅速减弱,直至对降水的发生基本无影响。对于QNcrst矢量来讲,其在梅雨锋气旋的发生发展及强盛阶段对降水的发生基本不起作用,但在梅雨锋气旋衰亡阶段其对降水发生起着主要促进作用。另外,在梅雨锋气旋发生发展及强盛时期,QNalst矢量与QNcurv矢量、QNshdv矢量与QNcrst矢量的散度水平分布特征相似,只不过强度上存在差异,但无明显相互抵消现象,而在梅雨锋气旋衰亡阶段就不同了,QNalst矢量与QNcurv矢量、QNshdv矢量与QNcrst矢量的散度水平分布特征基本相反,且存在明显的相互抵消现象。可见,通过QN矢量PG分解可以揭示出梅雨锋气旋不同阶段降水的强迫因子是不同的。
英文摘要:
      After the modified Q vector (Q*) is transferred and handled, a kind of Q vector (QN) is derived, whose calculating formula is similar to the counterpart of quasi-geostrophic Q vector (QG), however, QN vector is calculated using actual winds. The diagnostic abilities of QN vector and QG vector are compared based on a typical Changjiang-Huaihe Meiyu front cyclone (MYFC) rainstorm occurred during 5th-6th July 1991, and the results show that the diagnostic ability of QN vector is better in comparison to the counterpart of QG vector. In the meantime, the convergence field of QN vectors at 700 hPa can serve as a good indicator to the horizontally distributive character of the simultaneous actual precipitation. Then, the QN vector is partitioned into four components: QNalst (the “alongstream stretching” component that represents the intensifying/weakening of the alongflow thermal gradient by contraction/stretch of isotherm spacing), QNcurv (the “curvature” component that represents the curvature effect, according to which a downstream increase (decrease) in the cyclonic curvature of the isohypses induces subsidence (ascent)), QNshdv (the “shear advection” component that represents the thermal advection by horizontal wind shear), and QNcrst (the “crossstream stretching” that represents the effect of confluence and diffluence of the winds. i.e. the strengthening/weakening of the cross-flow thermal gradient forced by confluence and diffluence of the winds) in the natural coordinate system that follows the isohypses (hereafter referred to as PG partitioning). The application of QN PG partitioning to the analysis of the MYFC torrential rain from 2000 BST 5th to 2000 BST 6th 1991 indicates that the QN PG partitioning was able to disclose the potential physical mechanism of synoptic process, which was difficult for “total” QN (which is equal to QN) to display. In particular, the horizontally distributive characteristic of was always similar to that of , and accounted for a large portion of at the different stages of MYFC, which means that the former had large contribution to the latter in the context of exciting and forcing vertical motion generation and played a dominant forcing role in the formation of MYFC precipitation. During the whole evolution of the heavy rain of MYFC, the effect of QNcurv on the genesis of rain got little by little, until played a suppressing role. While the positive forcing effect of QNshdv on the genesis of precipitation got obviously stronger with the development of MYFC and got rapidly weakened, until almost disappeared as the MYFC moved eastwards to the sea and decayed. QNcrs had no effect on the generation of the precipitation during the developing and intensifying stages of MYFC but played a leading role at the decaying stage. In addition, the divergences of QNalst and QNcurv, and QNshdv and QNcrst showed similar horizontally distributive features, respectively, and no obviously mutual cancellation, but differences in intensity during the developing and intensifying stages of MYFC, however, at the decaying stage they did display the opposite distributive features and mutual cancellation. Obviously, the QN PG partitioning can disclose clearly different forcing factors of precipitation generation at different stages of MYFC.
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