关皓,周林,王汉杰,宋帅. 2008. 南海中尺度大气海浪耦合模式及其对该区一次强台风过程的模拟研究[J]. 气象学报, 66(3):342-350, doi:10.11676/qxxb2008.032
南海中尺度大气海浪耦合模式及其对该区一次强台风过程的模拟研究
A mesoscale atmosphere ocean wave coupling model and numerical simulations on a strong typhoon process in South China Sea.
投稿时间:2006-11-06  修订日期:2007-09-13
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2008.032
中文关键词:  大气模式, 海浪模式, 耦合模式, 台风, 海表粗糙度
英文关键词:MM5, Wave Watch Ⅲ, Coupled model, Typhoon, Sea surface roughness
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(40675040)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划,2006CB400505)
作者单位
关皓 解放军理工大学气象学院南京 211101 
周林 解放军理工大学气象学院南京 211101 
王汉杰 中国科学院东亚区域气候-环境重点实验室北京 100029 
宋帅 中国科学院东亚区域气候-环境重点实验室北京 100029 
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中文摘要:
      利用中尺度大气模式MM5(V3)和第3代海浪模式WWATCH建立考虑大气 海浪相互作用的风浪耦合模式。在耦合模式中引入考虑波浪影响的海表粗糙度参数化方案,大气模式分量提供海面10 m风场驱动海浪模式分量运行,并利用海浪模式分量反馈的波龄参数计算海表粗糙度。利用耦合模式模拟南海的一次台风过程,通过3组对比试验,检验耦合模式对台风过程的模拟效果并研究大气 海浪相互作用对台风过程的影响。结果表明:耦合模式能够较好地模拟南海的台风过程,与非耦合大气模式相比,其模拟的台风强度略有增强,路径变化不大;耦合模式对台风过程中海表热通量及降水影响显著,在台风充分发展过程中,耦合模式模拟的海表热通量增强,台风螺旋雨带上尤其是台风路径的右侧,耦合模式模拟的降水强于非耦合模式;耦合模式较好地模拟了台风过程海浪场的分布和演变,与非耦合模式相比,其模拟的海浪场增强,与实际更为接近;考虑了海表粗糙度对波浪的依赖关系后,海浪场同时影响海表的动力过程和热力过程,从本次个例看,在台风发展初期,海浪对海表动力作用影响显著,其反馈作用使台风系统减弱,但在台风充分发展后,耦合系统中海表热通量增加,热力作用显著增强,海浪的反馈作用有利于台风系统的发展和维持。
英文摘要:
      The exchange of heat, momentum, and moisture between air and sea has long been recognized as a fundamental process in the development of mesoscale atmospheric phenomena such as tropical cyclones, boundary layer jets, and heavy precipitating systems. The air-sea exchange takes place at the air sea interface in the wave boundary layer, so ocean waves play potential impacts on the air-sea interaction process. The mesoscale atmospheric model MM5(V3) and the third generation of ocean wave model Wave Watch Ⅲ are coupled each other in a two way coupling manner using a Linux IPC (inter process communication) technique. The coupled model is used to simulate a strong typhoon process in the South China Sea and the interaction between atmosphere and ocean waves is studied. The two models are coupled using the parameterization scheme of sea surface roughness proposed by Smith in 1992. In the parameterization scheme, the sea surface roughness length depends on the wave age, which is calculated in the ocean wave model. In the coupling model run, the atmospheric model provides the sea surface wind to drive the ocean wave model, and the calculated wave age is inputted to the atmospheric model to calculate the sea surface roughness using the special PBL module. In this way, the two models are coupled each other and output both atmospheric and ocean wave parameters simultaneously. Three different experimental schemes are designed in this paper to valuate the function of the coupled model, which are named control, one way and two way coupling runs, respectively. The control run is an ordinary atmospheric model without any oceanic feedback, and the one way coupling considers the driving wind field from the atmospheric model and its impact on the ocean waves only. The two-way coupling runs the ocean wave model and atmospheric model simultaneously using the coupling scheme mentioned above. In the coupling run, the process of typhoon is simulated by the coupled model and the exchange time step is 15 minutes. The experiment results show that the coupled model shows very good capability in simulating the typhoon process in the South China Sea. The typhoon simulated by the coupled model is stronger than that by the uncoupled atmospheric model and much more agrees with the observations. The tracks of typhoon simulated by the coupled and uncoupled models show little difference. The simulated sea surface heat flux of coupled model increases significantly in the well developed stage of the typhoon, it is higher than that of uncoupled atmospheric model. In the spiral rainfall belt, particularly to the right section of the typhoon track, the simulated precipitation in the coupled model is stronger than that in the uncoupled model. The coupled model behaves very well in simulating the ocean wave distribution of the typhoon system, particularly for significant wave heights. With the feedback of ocean waves, the simulated significant wave heights are higher and in closer agreement with observations. In view of the dependence of sea surface roughness on ocean wave age, the ocean waves affect both dynamical and thermal processes. In this test, the feedback of ocean waves is more effective in the dynamic interaction processes by momentum fluxes in the initial stage of typhoon development, which reduces the intensity of the typhoon system. When the system is well developed, the feedback mechanism is more effective in the thermal interaction processes by heat fluxes, which intensifies the system.
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