李庆宝,苗世光,刘学刚,张苏平,孙桂平,LIU Xiaochu,LIU Xiaochu , . 2010. 边界层流场和地形特征对青岛奥帆赛场午后海风影响的研究[J]. 气象学报, 68(6):985-997, doi:10.11676/qxxb2010.093
边界层流场和地形特征对青岛奥帆赛场午后海风影响的研究
On the impacts of boundary layer flows and the terrain on the afternoon sea breeze in the Qingdao Olympic sailing venue.
投稿时间:2008-11-27  修订日期:2009-06-29
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2010.093
中文关键词:  奥帆赛,海陆风,边界层流场,地形,分流
英文关键词:Olympic sailing competition, Land sea breeze, Boundary Layer flow, Terrain, Bifurcation
基金项目:山东省青岛市气象局奥帆赛气象服务研发课题专项,国家自然科学基金项目(40505002、40775015)
作者单位
李庆宝 青岛市气象台青岛266003 
苗世光 中国气象局北京城市气象研究所北京100089 
刘学刚 青岛市气象台青岛266003 
张苏平 中国海洋大学海洋环境学院青岛266003 
孙桂平 青岛市气象台青岛266003 
LIU Xiaochu Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK 
LIU Xiaochu  Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK 
  
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中文摘要:
      奥帆赛是奥运会唯一以自然风为动力的竞赛项目。而北京奥运会期间的8月,青岛的风速是一年中最小的,因风速过小致使帆船竞赛无法进行的情况时有发生。鉴于青岛的弱风与海陆风的发展状况关系密切,文中分析8、9月青岛奥帆赛和残奥帆赛期间竞赛海域海陆风的发展条件,并用高分辨率数值模式对相关个例进行了模拟试验研究。结果发现,地面背景气流、边界层中上部径向气流和周围地形、海陆分布等边界层特征,都对竞赛海域海陆风的发展产生影响。其中晴天时,地面西风、弱的北风和东风、均压场环境以及边界层中上部弱的北风条件等,都是竞赛海域海风发展的有利条件;而地面南风(无论大小)、强的北风以及边界层中上部较强的南风和很强的北风等,则是海风发展的不利条件。此外,当地面为东北风时,位于竞赛海域上游的崂山对地面风速有阻挡减弱的作用,从而有利于海风的发展;地面为南风时,崂山和浮山等地形强迫气流在竞赛海域附近向左右分为两支,胶州湾和崂山湾侧向海风(东南风)急流发展又加大了这种分流作用,导致竞赛海域常减小为弱风,使比赛无法进行。以上结论在2008年奥帆赛和残奥帆赛气象保障预报服务中得到运用。
英文摘要:
      The Olympic regatta is the only performance in the Olympic Games which is the natural wind driven competition event. The wind in Qingdao in August (the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games period) is the weakest of the year, and the weak wind often impedes the sailing competition. However the weak wind in Qingdao is tied up with the development of land sea breeze. The background conditions for the land-sea breeze development in the Qingdao Olympic sailing venue are analyzed, and simulated with a high resolution numerical model. The results show that the background surface wind, the radial wind in the middle-upper planetary boundary layer (PBL), and the surrounding terrain and land-sea distribution, all affect the development of land-sea breeze in this area. Under clear sky, the surface conditions, including west wind, weak north wind, east wind and equable pressure field, as well as weak north wind in the middle-upper PBL, are all conducive to the development of sea breeze in the competition venue. However the surface conditions of south wind (either strong or weak) and strong north wind, the strong south wind and north wind in the middle-upper PBL, are all unfavorable to the development of sea breeze. However, when the surface wind is from the northeast, the blocking and decreasing of surface wind due to the upstream the Lao Mountain are favorable to the development of sea breeze. When the surface wind is southerly, the air flow in the area of sailing venue is bifurcated by the Lao Mountain and the Fu Mountain, and this effect is enhanced by the lateral sea breeze jet (southeast wind) developed in the Kiaochow Bay and the Lao Mountain Bay, resulting in the weak wind in the sailing venue. The above results have been successfully applied to the meteorological services for the Qingdao Olympic and Paralympic sailing competitions.
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