张强,王胜,问晓梅,南玉合,曾剑. 2012. 黄土高原陆面水分的凝结现象及收支特征试验研究[J]. 气象学报, 70(1):128-135, doi:10.11676/qxxb2012.012
黄土高原陆面水分的凝结现象及收支特征试验研究
An experimental study of land surface condense phenomenon and water budget characteristics over the Loess Plateau.
投稿时间:2010-06-10  修订日期:2011-03-09
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2012.012
中文关键词:  凝结现象, 蒸散量, 微气象条件, 黄土高原半干旱区, 陆面水分平衡
英文关键词:Condensation phenomena, Evapotranspiration, Micrometeorological condition, Semi arid region in Loess Plateau, Land surface water budget
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(40830957)、面上项目(41075009)及国家公益性行业科研专项(GYHY200806021)
作者单位
张强 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室兰州730020
甘肃省气象局,兰州730020
兰州大学大气科学学院兰州730000 
王胜 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室兰州730020
兰州大学大气科学学院兰州730000 
问晓梅 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室兰州730020
上海宝山区气象局,上海201901 
南玉合 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室兰州730020
兰州大学大气科学学院兰州730000 
曾剑 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室兰州730020
北京市气象局北京100081 
摘要点击次数: 3299
全文下载次数: 3112
中文摘要:
      中国黄土高原是全球独特的地理区域,其陆面水分过程比较特殊。利用黄土高原陆面过程试验研究(LOPEX)的陇中黄土高原定西陆面过程综合观测站的资料,分析了陆面水分凝结现象及其出现频率与局地微气象条件的关系,研究了露水(霜)量及其出现频率的季节分布特征以及受降水和天气阴、晴的影响规律。同时,对比分析了降水、露水、雾水和土壤吸附水对陆面水分的贡献率,讨论了涡动相关法、蒸渗计和蒸发皿观测的陆面蒸发量的差别及其与陆面水分来源的年平衡关系,给出了半干旱区陆面水分平衡的日循环特征。发现露水对风速、大气湿度、近地层温度梯度的依赖很强,一般在风速为1.5 m/s、相对湿度大于80%和逆温强度为0.25℃的情况下露水(霜)量最大;刚降水后的晴天露水量比较大;实际蒸散量与蒸发力的差距十分明显,陆面水分平衡特征表现为一个“呼吸”过程。
英文摘要:
      The Chinese Loess Plateau is a unique area in the world, dominated by a semi arid climate with unusual land surface hydrology. The previous studies have paid little attention to the non precipitation land surface hydrological processes, such as dew formation, on the semi arid Loess Plateau. Therefore, it is important to improve our understanding of the micrometeorological conditions controlling dew formation and the main characteristics of the land surface water balance. Here, we have analysed the observation data on land surface processes, collected at the Dingxi observational station in the LOPEX experimental area, to investigate the relationships between dewfall (or frost) amount and micrometeorological conditions, the characteristics of the seasonal distribution of dewfall (frost) and the influence of precipitation and other weather conditions on dewfall (frost). The fractional contributions of precipitation, dewfall, fog and soil adsorbed water to the land surface water balance are also calculated. The differences between land surface evapotranspiration rates observed by the three methods (eddy covariance, large lysimeter and evaporation pan), and the balance between evapotranspiration and the total land surface water sources are discussed. The land surface water sources, without precipitation or evapotranspiration, jointly constitute a diurnal cycle known as “water respiration” on the land surface. It has been found that the amount of dewfall (frost) is influenced by micrometeorological conditions: a higher relative humidity of the atmosphere surface layer leads to greater dewfall (frost). The amount of dew (frost) is greatest under an inversion strength of 0.25℃ and wind speed of 1.5 m/s, explaining why dewfall totals are the greatest in autumn, second greatest in spring and the lowest in summer and winter. Over an annual cycle, the total land surface water sources are similar to evapotranspiration values observed by both the methods of lysimeter and eddy covariance, indicating that the land surface water budget is close to a steady state. In the semi arid region of the Loess Plateau, precipitation is still the dominant water source, but non precipitation surface water can account for more than about 15% of the total land surface water sources. Of these non precipitation land surface water sources, soil absorbed water is the greatest, followed by dew, and fog is the weakest.
HTML   查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
分享按钮