章颖,赵平. 2012. 夏季亚洲-太平洋遥相关季节演变与大气环流和降水[J]. 气象学报, 70(5):1055-1063, doi:10.11676/qxxb2012.088
夏季亚洲-太平洋遥相关季节演变与大气环流和降水
Seasonal evolutions of the summer Asian-Pacific teleconnection and associated atmospheric circulation and rainfall
投稿时间:2011-12-10  修订日期:2012-03-26
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2012.088
中文关键词:  亚洲-太平洋涛动, 大气环流, 降水, 季节变化
英文关键词:Asian-Pacific Oscillation (APO), Atmospheric circulation, Precipitation, Seasonal variation
基金项目:国家国际科技合作专项(2011DFG23450)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(2009CB421404)
作者单位
章颖 中国气象科学研究院灾害性天气国家重点实验室北京100081 
赵平 中国气象科学研究院灾害性天气国家重点实验室北京100081
国家气象信息中心北京100081 
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中文摘要:
      利用1981—2007年逐日大气再分析资料和降水资料以及统计分析方法,研究了夏季(5—9月)亚洲与太平洋区域的大气遥相关,并分析了其季节演变与夏季亚洲-太平洋大气环流和亚洲季风区降水的联系。结果表明:在5—9月逐日对流层上层扰动温度场上,亚洲与北太平洋中纬度存在着类似于亚洲-太平洋涛动的遥相关现象,即在季节尺度上,当亚洲大陆中纬度对流层上层偏暖时,北太平洋中纬度对流层上层偏冷,反之亦然;亚洲与太平洋对流层上层温度的反位相变化特征也出现在对流层中下层和平流层低层。亚洲-太平洋涛动指数不仅可以指示夏季亚洲与太平洋中纬度纬向热力差异的变化特征,也可以较好地指示亚洲与热带印度洋经向热力差异的变化特征。亚洲-太平洋涛动指数最大值常出现在7月中旬到8月初,并且从1981年到2007年该最大值出现时间有偏早趋势。当夏季亚洲 太平洋涛动指数偏高(低)时,亚洲大陆上空的南亚高压和其下方的亚洲大陆低压系统偏强(弱),太平洋副热带高压偏强(弱)并偏北(南),亚洲—非洲上空的热带东风急流和低层的西南风偏强(弱),从印度到中国华南的广大地区、中国华北以及东北亚等地降水偏多(少)。
英文摘要:
      Using the 1981-2007 daily atmospheric reanalysis data and rainfall data as well as statistical analysis methods, the summer (May to September) atmospheric teleconnection over the Asian-Pacific region is investigated, and the seasonal variation of this teleconnection and its links with the Asian Pacific atmospheric circulation and the Asian monsoon rainfall are analyzed. The results show an extratropical teleconnection between Asia and the North Pacific in the daily upper tropospheric temperature disturbance in May to September, similar to the Asian Pacific Oscillation (APO). On the seasonal scales, when the upper troposphere is warmer in the midlatitudes of the Asian continent, it is colder than normal in the midlatitudes of the North Pacific, and vice versa. This out of phase varying feature in the upper-tropospheric temperature between Asia and the Pacific also occurs in the middle and lower layers of the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The APO index not only indicates the varying features of summer extratropical zonal thermal contrast between Asia and the Pacific but also better reflects the variability of the summer meridional thermal contrast between Asia and tropical Indian Ocean. The largest APO index often occurs in middle July to early August and tended to occur earlier from 1981 to 2007. When the summer APO index is high (low), the upper-tropospheric South Asian High in the Asian continent and the underlying low pressure system are strong (weak) and the subtropical North Pacific high is strong (weak) and shifts its location northwards (southwards). The upper-tropospheric tropical easterly wind jet and the lower-tropospheric southwesterly winds are strong (weak) over the Asia-Africa region. The precipitations increase (decrease) in a large region from India to southern China and in northern China as well as over northeastern Asia.
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