张小曳. 2014. 中国不同区域大气气溶胶化学成分浓度、组成与来源特征[J]. 气象学报, 72(6):1108-1117, doi:10.11676/qxxb2014.092
中国不同区域大气气溶胶化学成分浓度、组成与来源特征
Characteristics of the chemical components of aerosol particles in the various regions over China
投稿时间:2014-01-02  修订日期:2014-09-25
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2014.092
中文关键词:  气溶胶化学成分  中国  各区域  气溶胶污染控制
英文关键词:Aerosol chemical component  China  Various region  Aerosol pollution control
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划973项目(2011CB403401).
作者单位
张小曳 中国气象科学研究院, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      为获得中国不同区域大气气溶胶化学组成的总体"图景",进一步探讨污染治理方向,需要分区域评估其化学成分浓度水平、组成与来源特征.通过对近地层中国内陆大气气溶胶中6种主要化学成分(硫酸盐、硝酸盐、铵、有机碳、黑碳和矿物气溶胶)至少有1 a观测研究的评估分析,获得不同区域气溶胶化学成分质量浓度水平与组成的评估结果,认识到在气溶胶污染最严重的4大区域(即北京以南的华北与关中平原区域、以长三角为主体的华东区域、以珠三角为主体的华南区域以及四川盆地)的PM10中矿物气溶胶(所占比例在20%—38%)、硫酸盐(14%—24%)、有机碳(11%—18%)是3个主要组分;其中华北与关中平原气溶胶污染在中国最重,硫酸盐浓度在35—47 μg/m3(远高于北京(13—18 μg/m3))、有机碳28—45 μg/m3(约是北京(19—22 μg/m3)的1.8倍)、硝酸盐19—22 μg/m3(约是北京(9.9—12 μg/m3)的2倍)、铵14—16 μg/m3(仍然比北京(6.2—8.4 μg/m3)高1倍),黑碳在北京和北京以南城市的浓度差别不大(9.1—12 μg/m3).这其中燃煤对硝酸盐和有机碳气溶胶的贡献超过50%,农业活动是铵的最重要来源.华东、华南和东北城市区域气溶胶化学成分浓度水平与北京相近,但四川盆地城市站各组分浓度均高于北京,污染较重.西北兰州城市站,除了黑碳浓度低很多、硝酸盐浓度稍高外,其他气溶胶化学成分浓度水平与北京相当.西北偏远区域沙漠站点,各种气溶胶化学成分的浓度都要远低于北京.青藏高原和云贵高原城市站气溶胶化学成分浓度与北京相比也明显偏低.不同区域气溶胶化学组成分析显示,燃煤、机动车、城市逸散性粉尘和农业活动是4个最需要关注的污染源,加强除发电行业外的燃煤脱硫,进一步消减燃煤氮氧化物、一次有机碳和挥发性有机物排放,并有效减少农业活动排放到大气中的氨,更有效限制硫酸盐和硝酸盐的形成是已有大气污染治理对策基础上,未来应特别关注的控制方向.
英文摘要:
      In order to obtain the overall chemical "picture" of the aerosol pollution in the various regions of China and discuss the further direction of pollution control, we need to assess and evaluate the concentration level, chemical composition and their sources region-by-region in China. Features of the chemical aerosol particles in China have been obtained, based on the analysis of the six major chemical components (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, mineral aerosol, organic and element carbon) from the ground-based observation with all having at least one-year-long measurements. The four most hazy regions of the nine regions with characteristics of synchronous changing in visibility within China are also identified, which are the region south of Beijing (also called the Huabei Plain and Guanzhong Plain); the eastern China region with the Yangtze River Delta as its main body; the south China region with the Pearl River Delta as its main body; and also the region of Sichuan Basin. Of the PM10 in China, three major components are accounted for 20%-38% of the total mass for mineral aerosol, 14%-24% for sulfate, and 11%-18% for organic carbon.The heaviest aerosol pollution was found in the Huabei and Guanzhong Plain region, with the annual mean concentrations of 35-47 μg/m3 of sulfate (which was much higher than the urban Beijing level of 13 to 18 μg/m3), 28-45 μg/m3 of organic carbon (about 1.8 factor higher than the Beijing level of 19-22 μg/m3), 19-22 μg/m3 for nitrate (2 times higher than the Beijing level of 9.9-12 μg/m3), 14-16 μg/m3 for ammonium (still one factor higher than the Beijing mean concentration of 6.2-8.4 μg/m3), and the 9.1-12 μg/m3 of elemental carbon which was similar with the level of Beijing. More than 50% mass of nitrate and organic carbon are attributable to coal-combustion, and the agricultural activity is the most important source for ammonium.In the urban areas of eastern, southern and northeastern China, the concentration levels of aerosol chemical components were similar to those in Beijing, but in the urban areas of the Sichuan Basin, the annual mean concentrations were higher than in Beijing, exhibiting heavy aerosol pollution there. In Lanzhou of northwestern China, the urban level concentrations of aerosol chemical components were also similar to that in Beijing, except for much lower concentration in elemental carbon and bit higher concentration of nitrate observed. In the remote desert area of northwestern China, the chemical concentrations of aerosol particles were far lower than in Beijing, while it is also true for the Tibetan and Yuannan-Guizhou Plateau. Coal-combustion, motor vehicle, sources for urban fugitive dust and agricultural activities are found to be the four major pollution sources by the aerosol chemical composition analysis in the different regions. Therefore, the future control countermeasures of atmospheric aerosol pollutants should be directed to the following: strengthening coal desulfurization in addition to the power generation industry, further reducing coal produced emissions of NOx, organic carbon and its precursor gases, and effectively reducing ammonia emissions from agricultural activity with effectively limiting the formation of secondary aerosol, especially for sulfate and nitrate.
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