石春娥,邓学良,朱彬,杨元建,张浩,吴必文,王红磊. 2016. 合肥市不同天气条件下大气气溶胶粒子理化特征分析[J]. 气象学报, 74(1):149-163, doi:10.11676/qxxb2016.003
合肥市不同天气条件下大气气溶胶粒子理化特征分析
Physical and chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol under the different weather conditions in Hefei
投稿时间:2015-05-28  修订日期:2015-10-26
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2016.003
中文关键词:  气溶胶  水溶性无机离子  谱分布  雾、霾天  合肥
英文关键词:Aerosol  Water soluble inorganic ions  Size spectrum  Fog and haze  Hefei
基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201206011),安徽省自然科学基金项目(1608085MD84)。
作者单位
石春娥 安徽省气象科学研究所, 安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室, 合肥, 230031 
邓学良 安徽省气象科学研究所, 安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室, 合肥, 230031 
朱彬 南京信息工程大学大气物理学院, 南京, 210044 
杨元建 安徽省气象科学研究所, 安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室, 合肥, 230031 
张浩 安徽省气象科学研究所, 安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室, 合肥, 230031 
吴必文 安徽省气象科学研究所, 安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室, 合肥, 230031 
王红磊 南京信息工程大学大气物理学院, 南京, 210044 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨合肥市霾天气大气气溶胶粒子的组成及来源,在2012-2013年代表性月份用安德森分级采样器在合肥市区进行大气气溶胶粒子采样,并分析各样本中水溶性无机离子成分(NH4+、Mg2+、Ca2+、Na+、 K+、NO2-、NO3-、Cl-、SO42-)。根据同期气象资料把采样背景天气分为晴空、雾、霾、轻雾等4类,详细分析了这4种天气下大气细粒子(指PM2.1)和粗粒子(粒径大于2.1 μm部分)的浓度、组成以及主要离子组分的异同。结果表明:(1)观测期间晴空天多对应空气质量优良,雾、霾天对应轻度到重度污染,从晴空天到雾、霾天,PM2.1浓度大幅度上升,且其占总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)的比例显著上升。(2)从晴空天到雾、霾天,水溶性无机离子质量占PM2.1质量浓度的比例上升,分别为46%(晴空)、67%(霾)、61%(雾)、80%(轻雾)。PM2.1中水溶性无机离子浓度居前3位的雾、霾天是SO42-、NO3-和NH4+,晴空天为SO42-、Ca2+、NO3-。(3)与晴空天相比,霾天PM2.1中水溶性无机离子浓度变化倍数最大的是NO3-(为晴空的6.1倍,下同)、其次是NH4+(3.6倍)和SO42-(3.0倍);雾和轻雾天PM2.1中水溶性无机离子浓度变化最大的是NO3-(>10倍)、其次是NH4+(>5倍)和Cl-(>4.0倍)。(4)4种天气下,与人为污染有关的离子(SO42-、NO3-、Cl-、NH4+)尺度谱存在显著差异,呈双峰型、单峰型、三峰型等;而Ca2+的尺度谱无明显变化,基本上都呈双峰型。(5)在粒径3.3 μm以下,阳、阴离子平衡较好,随着尺度增大变差,且晴空天比雾、霾天差。主要阴离子浓度间、Cl-和Na+间的比值和相关性,在晴空天和雾、霾天差异较大。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the compositions and sources of atmospheric aerosols during haze episode in Hefei, samples of atmospheric aerosol were collected using the FA-3 Andersen cascade impactor in urban Hefei in the representative months of 2012 and 2013.The main water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII) (NH4+,Mg2+,Ca2+,Na+,K+,NO2-, NO3-,Cl-,SO42-) for each sample were measured. Based on the records of meteorological parameters during the observations, the samples were divided into four types: clear day, haze day, fog day and mist day. Then, the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosol under those four types of weather were analyzed and compared. The results showed that fog and haze in Hefei usually corresponded to light to heavy air pollution, and the clear day corresponded to good air quality. From clear day to fog or haze day, the concentration of fine particles (PM2.1 in this paper) increased evidently, with increasing percentages of WSII in PM2.1.The ratio of PM2.1to TSP was 43% for clear days, 52% for haze days, 65% for fog days and 64% for mist days. The ratio of WSII to PM2.1 was 46% (clear day), 67% (haze day), 61% (fog day), 80% (mist day).As for mass concentration, the top three ions in PM2.1 was SO42-,NO3- and NH4+ for fog (mist) and haze days, while the top three ions were SO42-, Ca2+ and NO3- on clear days. The top three ratios of WSII ions in PM2.1 on haze days, compared with the corresponding values on clear days, were 6.1 times larger for NO3-, 3.6 for NH4+ and 3.0 for SO42-, while the top three ratios of WSII ions in PM2.1 on fog (mist) days with the corresponding values on clear days were over 10.0 times for NO3-, over 5.0 for NH4+ and over 4.0 for Cl-. Under those four types of weather, the size spectra for those ions (NH4+,NO3-,Cl-,SO42-) related to anthropogenic activities were obviously different, showing double peaks, single peak and tri-peaks, while the size spectrum for natural emitted ions (e.g., Ca2+) was almost all double peaks under the four types of weather with slight changes. The balances between cations and anions were very good for aerosols below 3.3 μm and changed worse with the increasing size, and it was better on fog, mist and haze days than on clear days. The ratios and correlations among the major anions and between Cl- and Na+ show large differences between clear days and fog/haze days.
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