戴竹君,刘端阳,王宏斌,魏建苏,姜有山. 2016. 江苏秋冬季重度霾的分型研究[J]. 气象学报, 74(1):133-148, doi:10.11676/qxxb2016.007
江苏秋冬季重度霾的分型研究
The classification study of the heavy haze during autumn and winter of Jiangsu
投稿时间:2015-07-17  修订日期:2015-11-20
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2016.007
中文关键词:  重度霾  边界层  低压倒槽  动力与热力条件
英文关键词:Heavy haze  Boundary layer  Inverted trough with low pressure  Dynamic and thermal conditions
基金项目:江苏省自然科学基金(BK20130111);江苏省气象局重点项目(KZ201405);江苏省省级环保科研课题(2014021);国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAC22B04);江苏省气象局预报员专项(JSYBY201604);南京市气象科研开发项目(NJ201503);江苏省科技支撑计划项目(BE2014734)。
作者单位E-mail
戴竹君 南京市气象局, 南京, 210019  
刘端阳 江苏省气象台, 南京, 210008 liuduanyang2001@126.com 
王宏斌 江苏省气象科学研究所, 南京, 210009  
魏建苏 江苏省气象台, 南京, 210008  
姜有山 南京市气象局, 南京, 210019  
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中文摘要:
      利用常规观测资料、探空资料和NCEP再分析资料对江苏秋冬季重度霾的环流背景、边界层特征、热力条件、动力条件及气流轨迹进行了分析,探讨重度霾的形成机制。结果表明,2014年秋冬季纬向环流较常年显著增强,500 hPa转西北气流对重度霾缓解有6-12 h的提前指示意义。重度霾发生时的地面形势可分为3类:均压区型、冷锋前部型和低压倒槽型。东路冷空气驱霾效果优于西路冷空气。重度霾发生时主要是贴地逆温,风速在4 m/s以下,霾消散前一致转北风,日变化明显,下午霾常有所减轻。逆温强度方面,低压倒槽型强于西路冷锋前部型,强于均压区型;逆温持续时间方面,低压倒槽型长于西路冷锋前部型,长于均压区型;逆温厚度方面,3种类型基本相当;东路冷空气影响时逆温消失。不同类型逆温强度不同可能与925 hPa和近地面的风向风速、锋前升温及气团源地有关。逆温层多在300 m以下,逆温强度为1-5℃/(100 m),近地层有浅薄湿区,相对湿度为40%-90%。动力条件方面,低层辐合下沉区域霾常加重,并伴有明显气流停滞区,区域过程累积风矢量和很小,在100-500 m/s范围内,不利于污染物的水平扩散。冷锋前部型气流输送的气溶胶主要来源于西北-华北地区,低压倒槽型则主要来自华南,均压区型主要来源于本地。通过研究江苏秋冬季重度霾的天气特征得到了一些有意义的结果,可为今后预报提供更多参考依据。
英文摘要:
      By analyzing the conventional observation data, sounding data and reanalysis data of NCEP/NCAR, the circulation background, boundary layer characteristics, dynamic conditions, thermal conditions and the airflow trajectory of the heavy haze in Jiangsu Province during autumn and winter of 2014 are discussed. The results show that zonal circulation at 500 hPa was of more straightly west or northwest airflow. The airflow at 500 hPa changed to the northwest can be an indicator that heavy haze will disappear in 6 to 12 hours later. The main surface situations were uniform pattern of pressure, cold front and inverted trough with low pressure. The surface situation changed when heavy haze occurrs. Just before cold front coming, the haze was heaviest. The east path of cold air was more effective for eliminating haze than the middle or western path. In most of the heavy haze days, the bottom of the temperature inversion was near the ground.Lower wind speed of less than 4 m/s was shown to be favorable for the development of haze. The daily variation was obvious with the haze mitigated in the afternoon. As the intensity and duration of temperature inversion are concerned, the inverted trough type was stronger than the cold front west path type, both of them were stronger than the uniform pressure type. But the three types were almost the same in terms of the thickness of inversion.
Different types show different inversion intensity, which may be related to the prefrontal temperature enhancement and wind speed on 925 hPa and near ground, as well as air sources. The height of inversion layer is mostly under 300 m, with the intensity of temperature inversion for every hundred meters between 1 to 5℃, and higher relative humidity of greater than 40% and less than 90% were shown to be favorable for the development of haze. Underlying sink motion provided a favorable dynamic condition for haze, and, weak upward motion at 850 hPa was conducive to the upward development of haze. By using backward trajectory simulation, it is shown that the pollution for the uniform pressure type was mainly form the local emissions, cold front pollutants were from the northwestern or north China and transmitted over a long distance, and, the pollution for the type of inverted trough with low pressure mainly from the southern China. By studying the characteristics of heavy haze during autumn and winter of Jiangsu, meaningful results are obtained, which can provide more references for the future forecast.
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