宇如聪,李建. 2016. 中国大陆日降水峰值时间位相的区域特征分析[J]. 气象学报, 74(1):18-30, doi:10.11676/qxxb2016.011
中国大陆日降水峰值时间位相的区域特征分析
Regional characteristics of diurnal peak phases of precipitation over contiguous China
投稿时间:2015-11-11  修订日期:2015-12-29
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2016.011
中文关键词:  中国大陆  降水  日变化
英文关键词:Contiguous China  Precipitation  Diurnal variation
基金项目:北京市优秀博士学位论文指导教师科技项目(20138005801);国家自然科学基金项目(41322034)。
作者单位
宇如聪 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081 
李建 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      利用高密度的中国国家级地面气象站逐时降水数据,系统分析和比较了中国大陆地区暖季降水量、降水频次和降水强度的日变化峰值位相的整体特征、空间分布差异及典型区域平均的日变化演变特征。研究指出,中国大陆暖季降水日变化峰值时间主要表现为下午、清晨、夜间3类典型位相,且整体而言降水频次的清晨峰值更凸出,降水强度以下午峰值为主。综合考虑降水量和降水频次的日变化峰值位相,发现中国大陆地区降水日变化峰值位相在空间分布上存在7个典型区域:下午峰值区(东北至华北山区、东南内陆地区)、夜间峰值区(四川盆地西部至云贵高原东部、华北平原西部贴近山地的区域)和清晨峰值区(华北平原东部、秦巴山区至华中西南部)各两个,以及傍晚至夜间峰值位相的青藏高原区。各典型区域内部具有较一致的降水量和频次的日峰值时间位相,而区域边缘或交界处降水量和频次的峰值位相则相反,主要是降水量的下午主峰值时段与降水频次的清晨主峰值时段的错位。从降水量、降水频次和降水强度的日变化的演变特征来看,午后峰值区、夜间峰值区和青藏高原的傍晚至夜间峰值区的多数台站,都存在降水量位相滞后于降水强度而超前于降水频次的特征,这应是降水演变过程中时间演变不对称性和对流云系发展演变的具体表现。
英文摘要:
      Diurnal variations in amount, frequency, and intensity of warm season precipitation were studied and compared using the hourly rain-gauge data from the high-resolution national surface stations of China. It was found that there are three kind phases for the diurnal peak of precipitation: afternoon, early morning, and night. Overall, the frequency tends to peak in the early morning, while the intensity reaches the maximum in the afternoon. Taking the peak phases of both amount and frequency into account simultaneously, seven key regions were divided: two afternoon-peak regions (AN_N, AN_S), two night-peak regions (MN_N, MN_S), two early-morning-peak regions (EM_N, EM_S), and a region over the Tibetan Plateau (EVE_TP, with evening peaks). Precipitation amount and frequency at most stations within these key regions present coherent peak phases. In contrast, stations located out of the key regions tend to have opposite peak phases: the afternoon peak of precipitation amount versus the early morning peak of precipitation frequency. An important feature of the overall phase pattern is that the phase of the amount lags (leads) that of the intensity (frequency) in regions with afternoon, evening, or night peaks,which indicates the asymmetry of precipitation processes and the evolvement of convective clouds.
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