徐良韬,张义军,张文娟,王飞,郑栋. 2016. 台风莫拉菲(2009)登陆前后电荷结构演变的模拟研究[J]. 气象学报, 74(6):1002-1016, doi:10.11676/qxxb2016.071
台风莫拉菲(2009)登陆前后电荷结构演变的模拟研究
Simulation of the evolution of the charge structure during the landfall of Typhoon Molave (2009)
投稿时间:2016-02-19  修订日期:2016-08-23
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2016.071
中文关键词:  登陆台风  闪电特征  电荷结构
英文关键词:Landfall typhoon  Lightning activity  Charge structure
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2014CB441406)、国家自然科学基金项目(41405004)、中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费专项资金(2016Y008)。
作者单位
徐良韬 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081
中国科学院大学地球科学学院, 北京, 100049
中国气象科学研究院雷电物理与防护工程实验室, 北京, 100081 
张义军 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081
中国气象科学研究院雷电物理与防护工程实验室, 北京, 100081 
张文娟 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081
中国气象科学研究院雷电物理与防护工程实验室, 北京, 100081 
王飞 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081
中国气象科学研究院雷电物理与防护工程实验室, 北京, 100081 
郑栋 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081
中国气象科学研究院雷电物理与防护工程实验室, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      利用中尺度起电放电模式以及卫星和闪电定位等观测资料,对比分析了台风莫拉菲(2009)在登陆前后以及衰亡阶段的电荷结构及形成。结果表明:莫拉菲在登陆前存在近海加强过程,加强中逐渐形成清晰的台风眼并伴随眼壁区闪电活动的多发。眼壁区对流在近海加强阶段呈现正的三极性电荷结构,主负电荷区位于-25℃——10℃层,其上下各有一个正电荷区。而在台风达到最大强度后呈现负的偶极性电荷结构,仅存在云中部的负电荷区和下部的正电荷区。眼壁区对流的电荷结构同台风强度变化密切相关而不受登陆直接影响。在台风发展的不同阶段,外螺旋雨带对流主要表现为正的三极性或正的偶极性电荷结构,之前的研究一般认为外雨带对流只能呈现正的偶极性电结构。外雨带三极性电结构的形成可以类似于眼壁区三极性结构的形成,也存在其他形成机制,即在霰粒子与冰晶组成的正偶极性电荷结构下存在一个由雹粒子组成的正电荷区,从而形成正的三极性电荷结构。台风衰亡阶段对流主要表现负的偶极性电荷结构,对流活动较弱,类似于陆地雷暴消散阶段的特性。不同类型的电荷结构所对应对流的相对强度也在文内进行了讨论。
英文摘要:
      The charge structure and formation in Typhoon Molave (2009) before and after its landfall and during its decaying stage are investigated using satellite observations and lightning detection data as well as a mesoscale simulation. Results show that Molave was intensifying prior to landfall with a well-defined eye and relatively high-frequency lightning activities in the eyewall. Convections near the eyewall exhibited a positive tripole charge structure with a negative charge region located between the levels of -25℃ and -10℃ sandwiched by two positive charge regions. However, the charge structure of the convections became a negative bipole with a negative charge in the middle and a positive charge at the bottom of the convective clouds after Molave reached its maximum intensity. The charge structure in the eyewall convections is closely associated with the typhoon intensity, but not directly correlated with the landfall process. The outer spiral rainbands displayed a positive tripole charge or a positive bipole charge in different stages of Molave. Previous studies suggested that the outer rainbands of a typhoon only feature a positive bipole charge structure. The positive tripole charge structure in Molave formed with different mechanisms:One mechanism resembled that in the eyewall, and the other mechanism was related to a positive charge region composed of hails and a positive bipole region composed of graupels and ice crystals in the upper level, which formed a positive tripole charge structure. During the decaying stage of Molave, weak convections were mainly featured by a negative bipole similar to that in the terrestrial thunderstorms in dissipative stage. In addition, different charge structures and corresponding convection intensity are also discussed in this paper.
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