张海宏,肖宏斌,祁栋林,李甫. 2017. 青藏高原湿地土壤冻结、融化期间的陆面过程特征[J]. 气象学报, 75(3):481-491, doi:10.11676/qxxb2017.034
青藏高原湿地土壤冻结、融化期间的陆面过程特征
Features of land surface process over wetland at Tibetan Plateau during soil freezing and thawing periods
投稿时间:2016-10-26  修订日期:2017-03-15
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2017.034
中文关键词:  青藏高原  湿地  冻土  陆面过程
英文关键词:Tibetan Plateau  Wetland  Frozen soil  Land surface process
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41065007)、国家公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY(QX)201506001)。
作者单位
张海宏 青海省气象科学研究所, 西宁, 810001 
肖宏斌 青海省气象科学研究所, 西宁, 810001 
祁栋林 青海省气象科学研究所, 西宁, 810001 
李甫 青海省气象科学研究所, 西宁, 810001 
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中文摘要:
      利用青藏高原中部玉树隆宝湿地2015年7月-2016年7月的观测资料,分析了土壤冻结、融化前后土壤温、湿度和地表能量收支特征,结果表明:冻土持续时期为12月至次年4月,深层土壤的冻结较浅层土壤滞后,融化过程快于冻结过程,5-40 cm土壤全部冻结历时51 d,全部融化历时19 d。土壤体积含水量年变化幅度达0.6 m3/m3。冻结过程5-40 cm土壤体积含水量下降,融化过程5-10 cm土壤体积含水量升高。土壤冻结之后,感热通量白天的值升高,潜热通量白天的值降低,净辐射和土壤热通量均降低,土壤热通量日变化幅度增大。土壤融化之后,潜热通量、净辐射和土壤热通量白天的值升高。地表反照率、鲍恩比、土壤热导率和土壤热扩散率冻结后增大融化后减小,土壤热容量冻结后减小融化后增大。
英文摘要:
      Using observed data at Longbao wetland, Yushu from July 2015 to July 2016, features of soil temperature, soil moisture and surface energy budget were analyzed. The results show that the frozen period of soils lasts from preceding December to subsequent April. The soils at deeper depths freeze later than that near the surface. The thawing process is faster than the freezing process. The soil at 5-40 cm depth completely freezes within 51 d and thaws within 19 d. The magnitude of annual variability of soil water content is up to 0.6 m3/m3. 5-40 cm soil moisture decreases during the freezing period and 5-10 cm soil moisture increases during the thawing period. When the soil is frozen, sensible heat flux increases while latent heat flux decreases during the daytime, net radiation and soil heat flux both decrease, and the diurnal variation of soil heat flux becomes larger. After thawing, latent heat flux, net radiation and soil heat flux all increase during the daytime. Surface albedo, the Bowen ratio, and the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soil increase after freezing and decrease after thawing. The soil thermal capacity decreases after freezing and increases after thawing.
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