朱红芳. 2019. 进入安徽的两个高影响台风对比分析[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2019.011
进入安徽的两个高影响台风对比分析
Comparison of Two High Impact Typhoon Hitting Anhui
投稿时间:2017-12-22  修订日期:2018-05-18
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2019.011
中文关键词:  台风,“海葵”,“麦德姆”,对比分析,水汽辐合,垂直风切,雨滴谱
英文关键词:typhoon, Haikui, Matmo, comparative analysis, moisture convergence, raindrop size distribution(DSD)
基金项目:中国气象局预报员专项(CMAYBY2017-032)
作者单位E-mail
朱红芳 安徽省气象台 xmzhfnew@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      2012年8月台风“海葵”和2014年7月“麦德姆”登陆后进入安徽,均造成了区域性暴雨或大暴雨天气。利用常规观测资料、NCEP/NCAR再分析资料和雨滴谱资料,对这两个直接影响安徽的台风移动路径和暴雨形成机制进行了对比分析。分析结果表明:(1)“海葵”和“麦德姆”的移动路径、停留时间和强降水分布特征有明显不同。与“海葵”相比,“麦德姆”的移动速度快、降水持续时间短、累计降雨量和暴雨范围较小;但其短时强降水持续时间长、暴雨中心降水强度更大。(2)“海葵”和“麦德姆”降水过程中均有强的水汽输送和辐合,但水汽输送方向的差异使得“海葵”和“麦德姆”的强降水空间分布分别呈纬向型和经向型特征。同时水汽辐合持续时间决定了“麦德姆”的降水持续时间比“海葵”短,但其较深厚的强水汽辐合使得“麦德姆”的短时强降水持续时间长、暴雨中心降水强度大。(3)“海葵”是以稳定性降水为主的混合型降水,“麦德姆”则呈现出明显的对流性降水特征;两次台风降水过程中均是短时间的对流性降水对总降雨量贡献最大,且强降水区域均位于垂直风切的顺风切左侧。(4)“麦德姆”降水过程比“海葵”具有更高的雨滴数浓度和更大的降水粒子直径。当降水率小于10mm/h时,两次台风降水过程均以小雨滴为主且数量较多;降水率>10mm/h时,雨滴粒径增大但数量明显减少。(5)两次台风降水过程的Z-R均有较好的指数关系且拟合曲线比较一致,但在不同降水类型即层云降水和对流性降水中,其Z-R关系的a、b值差异较明显。因此针对不同降水类型,应采用分型Z-R关系来进行雷达定量估测降水。
英文摘要:
      Typhoon Haikui and Matmo landed China and passed through Anhui in August 2012 and July 2014 respectively. Both of them caused regional heavy rainstorm in Anhui. By using daily observation data, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and raindrop size distributions at Chuzhou, the tracks and the mechanisms of rainstorm are analyzed and compared between the two typhoons. The results are as follows. (1) Typhoon Haikui and Matmo were distinct in moving path, effect time and heavy rainfall distribution. Compared with Haikui, Matmo characterized by faster moving speed, shorter rainfall duration, smaller cumulative rainfall and rainstorm range. In addition, its short-time heavy rainfall duration was longer and the precipitation intensity of the rainstorm center was greater. (2) Although both of Haikui and Matmo had strong water vapor transport and convergence, but their spatial and temporal distribution are different. Caused by the different water vapor transportation, the heavy rainfall distribution of Haikui was zonal type,while Matmo was meridional type. Furthermore the duration of moisture convergence could explain why the Matmo"s rainfall duration was shorter than Haikui. However, the deep moisture convergence of Matmo made its short-time heavy rainfall last longer and enhance the intensity of its rainstorm center. (3)The precipitation of Haikui was a mixed type, with the mojority of straitiform precipitation, while Matmo was characterized by convective precipitation. In both of the two typhoon precipitation processes, the short time convective precipitation had larger contribution to the total rainfall, and heavy rainfall mostly occurred downshear-left of the environment vertical wind shear. (4) Matmo had higher raindrop concentration and larger raindrop size than those of Haikui. When rainfall intensity is less than 10mm/h, a large number of small raindrops contributed to the precipitation in both typhoons. On the contrary, when rainfall intensity is higher than 10mm/h, the raindrop size increased while the number decreased. (5) The two typhoon precipitation process showed a good exponential relationship between Z and R, and were consistent well with their fitting curve. But in different precipitation types: stratiform precipitation and convective precipitation, the value of a and b had obvious difference in Z-R relationship. Therefore, for different types of precipitation, the typing Z-R relationship should be used to estimate the precipitation by radar.
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