汪会,郭学良. 2018. 青藏高原那曲地区一次深对流云垂直结构的多源卫星和地基雷达观测对比分析[J]. 气象学报, 76(6):996-1013, doi:10.11676/qxxb2018.049
青藏高原那曲地区一次深对流云垂直结构的多源卫星和地基雷达观测对比分析
Comparative analyses of vertical structure of a deep convective cloud with multi-source satellite and ground-based radar observational data at Naqu over the Tibetan Plateau
投稿时间:2018-03-07  修订日期:2018-07-19
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2018.049
中文关键词:  青藏高原深对流云  垂直结构  观测分析
英文关键词:Deep convective cloud over Tibetan Plateau  Vertical structure  Observation analysis
基金项目:第三次青藏高原大气科学试验——边界层与对流层观测(GYHY201406001)、国家自然科学基金(41605107、91437104)、中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费(2015Y006)。
作者单位
汪会 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081
中国气象局云雾物理环境重点实验室, 北京, 100081 
郭学良 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081
中国气象局云雾物理环境重点实验室, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      为了加强对青藏高原深对流云垂直结构的深入认识,利用TRMM、CloudSat和Aqua多源卫星观测资料及地基垂直指向雷达(C波段调频连续波雷达和KA波段毫米波云雷达)资料,对第三次青藏高原大气科学试验期间2014年7月9日13-16时(北京时)发生在那曲气象站附近的深厚强对流云和那曲气象站以西100 km左右的深厚弱对流云的垂直结构特征进行了分析,得到的结果如下:(1)深厚强对流云和深厚弱对流云的水平尺度均较小(10-20 km),垂直发展高度较高(15-16 km,均指海拔高度);深厚强对流云在0℃层以下雷达反射率因子递增非常快,表明对流云内固态降水粒子下落至0℃层以下后融化过程有很重要的作用;在对流减弱阶段有明显的0℃层亮带出现,亮带位于5.5 km左右(距地1 km);(2)对比TRMM测雨雷达和C波段调频连续波雷达观测到的雷达反射率因子,发现TRMM测雨雷达在11 km以下存在高估;(3)深对流云主要为冰相云,云内10 km以上主要是丰富小冰粒子,而10 km以下是较少的大冰晶粒子;深厚强对流云和深厚弱对流云的微物理过程都主要包括混合相过程和冰化过程,混合相过程分为两种:一种是-25℃(深厚强对流云)或-29℃(深厚弱对流云)高度以下以凇附增长为主,另一种是该高度以上主要以冰晶聚合、凝华增长为主,该过程冰晶粒子有效半径增长较快。这些空基和地基的观测证据进一步揭示了青藏高原深对流云的垂直结构特征,为模式模拟青藏高原深对流云的检验提供了依据。
英文摘要:
      In order to improve the understanding of deep convective clouds over the Tibetan Plateau, the characteristics of vertical structures of a deep strong convective cloud over Naqu station and a deep weak convective cloud about 100 km to the west of Naqu station occurred during 13:00-16:00 BT 9 July 2014 in the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Science Experiment are analyzed based on multi-source satellite data from TRMM, CloudSat and Aqua and radar data from ground-based vertically pointing radars (C-band frequency modulation continuous wave radar and KA-band millimeter wave cloud radar). The results are as follows. (1) The horizontal scales of the deep strong convective cloud and deep weak convective cloud both were small (10-20 km), and the tops were high (15-16 km above the sea level, the same hereafter). Across the level of the 0℃ isotherm, the reflectivity increased rapidly, suggesting that the melting process of solid precipitation particles through the 0℃ level in the deep strong convective cloud played an important role. A bright band located at 5.5 km (1 km AGL) appeared during the period of convection weakening. (2) The reflectivities from TRMM precipitation radar below 11 km are found to be overestimated compared to that derived from the C-band frequency modulation continuous wave radar. (3) Deep convective clouds were mainly ice clouds, and there were rich small ice particles above 10 km, while few large ice particles were found below 10 km. The microphysical processes of deep strong convective cloud and deep weak convective cloud both mainly included mixed-phase process and glaciated process, and the mixed-phase process can be divided into two types, i.e., the riming process below the level of -25℃ (deep strong convective cloud) or -29℃ (deep weak convective cloud) and the aggregation and deposition process above the level. The latter process was accompanied with fast increase of ice particles effective radius. These evidences from space-based and ground-based observational data further reveal the characteristics of vertical structure of deep convective clouds over the Tibetan Plateau, and provide a basis for the evaluation of simulation results of deep convective clouds by cloud models.
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