霍文,胡顺起,智协飞,杨帆,杨兴华,周成龙,买买提艾力·买买提依明,潘红林. 2019. 人工绿地与自然沙地蒸散的计算与变异研究[J]. 气象学报, 77(5):949-959, doi:10.11676/qxxb2019.047
人工绿地与自然沙地蒸散的计算与变异研究
A variation study on calculation of evapotranspiration over constructed green land and natural sandy land
投稿时间:2018-08-14  修订日期:2019-01-28
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2019.047
中文关键词:  塔克拉玛干沙漠  人工绿地  自然沙地  蒸散
英文关键词:Taklimakan Desert  Constructed green land  Natural sandy land  Evapotranspiration
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41575008、41775030、41305107)、新疆高层次人才引进项目(2018)。
作者单位E-mail
霍文 南京信息工程大学气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心/气象灾害教育部重点试验室, 南京, 210044
中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所/中国气象局塔克拉玛干沙漠气象野外科学试验基地, 乌鲁木齐, 830002 
 
胡顺起 临沂市气象局, 临沂, 276004  
智协飞 南京信息工程大学气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心/气象灾害教育部重点试验室, 南京, 210044 zhi@nuist.edu.cn 
杨帆 中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所/中国气象局塔克拉玛干沙漠气象野外科学试验基地, 乌鲁木齐, 830002  
杨兴华 南京信息工程大学气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心/气象灾害教育部重点试验室, 南京, 210044
中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所/中国气象局塔克拉玛干沙漠气象野外科学试验基地, 乌鲁木齐, 830002 
 
周成龙 中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所/中国气象局塔克拉玛干沙漠气象野外科学试验基地, 乌鲁木齐, 830002  
买买提艾力·买买提依明 中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所/中国气象局塔克拉玛干沙漠气象野外科学试验基地, 乌鲁木齐, 830002  
潘红林 中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所/中国气象局塔克拉玛干沙漠气象野外科学试验基地, 乌鲁木齐, 830002  
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中文摘要:
      利用中国气象局塔克拉玛干沙漠气象野外科学试验基地2014—2015年自然沙地与人工绿地加密观测试验时次数据,采用GB/T 20481-2006气象干旱等级的蒸散算法,详细计算自然沙地、人工绿地以时次为单位的蒸散值。计算过程中采用多种参数算法,增加了观测数据的利用率,提高了计算精度,并尝试通过影响因子的变量赋值研究,量化蒸散的计算增减。结果表明:(1)自然沙地与人工绿地蒸散计算值都较好地刻画出了蒸散的年内变化,自然沙地计算值量级更贴近实际观测值,这与蒸散计算方法适用性有关。(2)人工绿地蒸散计算值在植被生长季与观测值的差值较大,自然沙地与观测值的差值较小;冷季人工绿地蒸散计算值与观测值接近,自然沙地计算值与观测值的差相对较大。(3)饱和水汽压与实际水汽压之差、2 m平均气温、2 m平均风速、饱和水汽压的斜率是计算蒸散的主要影响因子,其中饱和水汽压与实际水汽压之差和2 m平均风速随着赋值递增,蒸散差值时次百分比与年累计差值呈线性增长。2 m平均气温随着赋值递增,蒸散差值时次百分比与年累计差值表现比较稳定,饱和水汽压的斜率随着赋值递增,蒸散差值时次百分比与年累计差值略有递减。因此,GB/T 20481-2006气象干旱等级的蒸散算法在塔克拉玛干沙漠的适用性较好,人工绿地比自然沙地计算精度更高。
英文摘要:
      Evapotranspiration is not only a key variable of the water cycle, but also an important component of the energy balance. Consequently, the evapotranspiration estimation between natural sandy land (NSL) and constructed greenland (CGL) in the desert region has pivotal impacts on desert meteorology and energy transmission. Moreover, the associated research results have enormous applicable values like preventing desertification and reasonable utilization of ground water resource in the desert region. The evapotranspiration algorithm of the GB/T 20481-2006 dry grade is applied to accurately calculate hourly evapotranspiration values over NSL and CGL based on the intense observations collected at the Taklimakan Desert Meteorology Field Experiment Station of CMA during the period of 2014-2015. Inaddition, different parameters are used in the algorithm, which significantly enhances the utilization rate of the observations and the precision of the calculation. Furthermore, the increment and decrement of the calculated evapotranspiration are quantified based on the assignment research of the influencing factors. The main results are as follows. (1) The calculated values of the evapotranspiration over NSL and CGL can well reflect the annual variation of evapotranspiration. As for the changing trend, the values over CGL are better than that over NSL, which is related to the adaptability of the calculation method. (2) During the growing season, the difference between the calculated and observed evapotranspiration over CGL is larger than that over NSL. However, the opposite is true during the cold season. (3) The difference in the saturation vapor pressure and actual vapor pressure, 2 m mean air temperature, 2 m mean wind speed and the slope of the saturation vapor pressure are the main influencing factors for the evapotranspiration calculation, in which the difference between the saturation vapor pressure and actual vapor pressure as well as 2 m mean wind speed increase with the assignment, and the hourly percentage evapotranspiration difference (PED) and its annual cumulative value difference (ACD) display a linear increasing trend. Meanwhile, the 2 m mean air temperature also increases with the assignment, and the factors of PED and ACD remain stable. Likewise, as the assignment increases, the slope of saturation vapor pressure and the two variables (PED and ACD) show an upward tendency and a slight decrease, respectively. Therefore, the evapotranspiration algorithm of the GB/T 20481-2006 classification of meteorological drought has better applicability in the Taklimakan Desert, and the calculation accuracy over constructed green land is higher than that over natural sandy land.
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