何娜,丁青兰,俞小鼎,付宗钰,周璇,刘璐,李桑,柳克. 2020. 北京及周边地区雷暴阵风锋特征统计分析[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2020.013
北京及周边地区雷暴阵风锋特征统计分析
Statistical analysis of thunderstorm gust front characteristics in Beijing and surrounding areas
投稿时间:2019-06-28  修订日期:2019-11-06
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2020.013
中文关键词:  阵风锋 统计 多普勒雷达 雷暴触发 临近预报
英文关键词:Gust front, Statistics, Doppler radar, thunderstorm triggering, Nowcasting
基金项目:国家自然科学基金
作者单位E-mail
何娜 北京市气象台 hena0105@163.com 
丁青兰 北京市气象台 qlding@163.com 
俞小鼎 中国气象局气象干部培训学院 xdyu1962@126.com 
付宗钰 北京市气象台 fuzongyu@bj.cma.gov 
周璇 北京市气象台 zhouxuan07@126.com 
刘璐 北京市气象台 362766178@qq.com 
李桑 北京市气象台 lisang23@163.com 
柳克 中国民航华北空管局气象中心 liukewell@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为全面和系统研究北京及周边地区阵风锋各方面特征,使用2006~2015年10年期间暖季5~9月的北京多普勒雷达资料及北京、河北、天津自动气象站资料对北京及周边地区的阵风锋过程进行综合统计分析。结果表明,346次阵风锋过程中有232次过程触发了雷暴新生,占总数的67%,表明阵风锋具有较强的对雷暴的抬升触发能力。阵风锋在6、7、8月份出现的天数占总数的85%;出现的时间主要在午后至傍晚(12~21时北京时),维持的时间为0.5~3小时;阵风锋在北京东南方向生成的数量最多,且触发雷暴新生的次数也最多;接下来为偏东和东北方向;偏南和西南方向生成阵风锋数量居中,而偏北、偏西和西北地区阵风锋个例相对少,触发雷暴新生的比例也相对低。产生阵风锋的母体雷暴中48%为孤立雷暴(包括孤立多单体和超级单体风暴),31%为雷暴群,21%为飑线;97%的母体雷暴最强回波在50dBZ以上,阵风锋的回波强度主要在10~25dBZ区间。91%的阵风锋移动速度集中在10~60km/h,与母风暴的最大距离在1~60km之间;在母风暴衰减到30dBZ以下时,80%的阵风锋能够继续维持的时间不超过2个小时。阵风锋母风暴向东南方向部移动的个例最多,从阵风锋和母风暴移动方向的关系来看,阵风锋与母体风暴移向一致的情况占比例最高为32%,其次为母风暴无移动及阵风锋弧形扩散情况,各占17%;阵风锋与母体雷暴移向相反情况所占比例为最少,只有3%。最后统计了阵风锋经过地面自动站时,自动观测量的变化情况。结果显示,阵风锋在经过地面自动站时会造成风速增大,温度降低,相对湿度增大,气压增加的现象。
英文摘要:
      Gust fronts are a key element in the organization of convection initiation, yet knowledge of their typical characteristics is still lack of comprehensive statistics. To help alleviate this situation, the Doppler radar data in Beijing and the automatic weather stations in Beijing, Hebei, and Tianjin from May to September between 2006 and 2015 are used to analyze characteristics of gust front cases in Beijing and surrounding areas. Results indicate that 232 of the 346 gust front cases triggered the formation of thunderstorms, accounting for 67% of the total. Gust fronts show a strong trend to trigger thunderstorms. The number of days with gust front in June, July, and August accounts for 85% of the total number. The gust fronts occur mainly from afternoon to evening (from 12:00 to 21:00 in Beijing time), and last 0.5 to 3.0 hours. Most gust front cases occured in southeast of Beijing, then in the east and northeast, least in the direction of north, west and northwest. 48% of the parent thunderstorms which produce gust fronts are isolated thunderstorms (including isolated thunderstorm and super-cell storms), 31% are thunderstorm clusters, and 21% are squall lines. 97% of parent thunderstorms have reflectivities above 50dBZ and the gust fronts are characterized on Doppler radar as thin lines of enhanced reflectivity between 10 and 25dBZ. 91% of the gust fronts move between 10 to 60 km per hour. The maximum distance between the gust front and the parent storm is from 1 to 60 km. After the parent storms decay below 30dBZ, 80% of the gust front is maintained for no more than two hours. Compared the eight directions of compass, parent thunderstorm moved to southeast occupied most. Relationship of gust front and parent storm moving direction can be divided into seven types: same, reverse, vertical, obtuse, acute, phase of gust front arc diffusion and parent storm without moving. Storm of gust front and matrix to move to the same direction occupies 32%, which is the most of in above seven types; followed by parent storm without moving and gust front arc diffusion conditions, is 17% respectively; the proportion of gust front and parent thunderstorm moving in the opposite direction is the least, only occupies 3%. The statistics results show when gust fronts pass by the automatic weather stations, it accompanies with wind speed increasing, temperature dropping, relative humidity rising and pressure going up.
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