苗世光,蒋维楣,梁萍,刘红年,王雪梅,谈建国,张宁,李炬,杜吴鹏,裴琳. 2020. 城市气象研究进展[J]. 气象学报, 78(3):477-499, doi:10.11676/qxxb2020.025
城市气象研究进展
Advances in urban meteorology in China
投稿时间:2019-09-20  修订日期:2019-12-31
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2020.025
中文关键词:  城市化  城市天气  城市气候  综合观测网  外场观测试验  多尺度数值模式  大气环境
英文关键词:Urbanization  Urban weather  Urban climate  Comprehensive observation network  Field campaign  Multi-scale numerical model  Atmospheric environment
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41775047、41425020)、青年北京学者计划
作者单位E-mail
苗世光 北京城市气象研究院北京100089  
蒋维楣 南京大学大气科学学院南京210032 jwm@nju.edu.cn 
梁萍 上海市气候中心中国气象局上海城市气候变化应对重点开放实验室 上海200030  
刘红年 南京大学大气科学学院南京210032  
王雪梅 粤港澳环境质量协同创新联合实验室暨南大学环境与气候研究院广州510632  
谈建国 上海市气候中心中国气象局上海城市气候变化应对重点开放实验室 上海200030  
张宁 南京大学大气科学学院南京210032  
李炬 北京城市气象研究院北京100089  
杜吴鹏 北京市气候中心北京100089  
裴琳 北京城市气象研究院北京100089  
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中文摘要:
      中国数十年来在城市气象研究这一新兴学科领域开展了大量研究并获得了多方面的丰硕成果。文中从城市气象观测网与观测试验、城市气象多尺度模式、城市气象与大气环境相互影响、城市化对天气气候的影响等4个方面论述了城市气象的主要研究进展:中国各大城市已建立或正在完善具有多平台、多变量、多尺度、多重链接、多功能等特点的城市气象综合观测网;北京、南京、上海等地开展了大型城市气象观测科学试验,被世界气象组织列入研究示范项目;成功开展了风洞实验、缩尺度外场实验研究;建立了多尺度城市气象和空气质量预报数值模式,并应用于业务;在城市热岛效应、城市对降水影响、城市气象与城市规划、城市化对区域气候及空气质量的影响、城市气象与大气环境相互作用等研究领域取得长足进展。最后指出,未来需要重点从新观测技术及观测资料同化应用、城市系统模式研究、城市化对天气气候的影响机理、城市化对大气环境和人体健康的影响、城市水文气象气候与环境综合服务等方面开展科学研究与应用,为中国城市化、生态文明建设、防灾减灾和应对气候变化等国家需求提供科技支撑。
英文摘要:
      Over the past decades, a large number of studies have been carried out in the field of urban meteorology in China, and many fruitful results have been obtained. This paper discusses the main research progresses of urban meteorology from four aspects: urban meteorological observation network and field campaign, multi-scale model of urban meteorology, interaction between urban meteorology and atmospheric environment, and the impacts of urbanization on weather and climate. Major advances include: (1) comprehensive urban meteorological observation networks with the characteristics of multi-platform, multi-variable, multi-scale, multi-link and multi-function have been established or are being improved in China's major cities, (2) urban meteorological field campaigns included in the WMO research demonstration project have been carried out in Beijing, Nanjing, Shanghai and other cities, (3) wind tunnel experiments and scale-model outdoor experiments have been successfully carried out, (4) a multi-scale urban meteorological and air quality prediction numerical model system has been established and applied to the operation, (5) great progresses have been made in the research fields of urban heat island effect, urban impacts on precipitation, urban meteorology and urban planning, urbanization impacts on regional climate and air quality, and interaction between urban meteorology and atmospheric environment. Finally, in order to provide scientific and technological supports for China's urbanization, construction of ecological civilization, disaster prevention and mitigation, and response to climate change, it is pointed out that the future scientific research and application should focus on: new observation technologies and data assimilation, urban system model, the impact mechanisms of urbanization on weather and climate, the impacts of urbanization on atmospheric environment and human health, and integrated urban hydrometeorological climate and environmental services, etc.
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