郭学良. 2020. 高性能机载云粒子成像仪研制及应用[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2020.059
高性能机载云粒子成像仪研制及应用
Development and application of high-performance airborne cloud particle imager
投稿时间:2020-05-18  修订日期:2020-06-09
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2020.059
中文关键词:  机载,云粒子成像仪,研制,应用
英文关键词:Airborne, Cloud particles imager, Research & development, observational test
基金项目:国家重大科学仪器设备开发专项:机载云降水粒子谱仪与成像仪研制(2011YQ110059)
作者单位E-mail
郭学良 中国气象科学研究院 guoxl@mail.iap.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      机载云粒子成像仪是目前直接观测云中粒子谱分布和形状特征的关键科学仪器设备,在云物理结构探测、遥感反演验证、数值模式云物理过程改进和人工影响天气等领域具有重要作用,因此针对现有进口仪器的不足,不断开发更高性能的云粒子探测仪器十分重要。本文介绍了2011启动的国产机载云粒子成像仪设备的研制情况、测量原理、主要性能指标、标定方法和观测试验应用结果。经过多年的反复试验,解决和显著改进了激光光束匀化、弱信号探测、多路并行处理及微粒消衍射等关键技术,从而提高了探测器像元的光功率均匀性和一致性,使光斑区域内平均光功率密度提高约3倍,从而改进了粒子成像能力。采用更高分辨率国产光电线阵探测器,测量响应时间明显减小,对小云粒子的探测能力明显提高。该研制仪器通过了一系列仪器基础参数测试、系统优化、环境适应性实验和累计60多架次的飞行测试。对2018年11月5日进行的两架次对比探测结果的初步分析表明,新研制的云粒子成像仪对小粒子端云粒子浓度的测量精度较原来进口仪器提高了一个量级左右,测量数据起伏更小,稳定性更高,并且可正确获得更加清晰可靠的云粒子形态特征。
英文摘要:
      The airborne imager of cloud particles is a key scientific instrument in directly obtaining the properties of size distributions and images in clouds, and plays an important role in probing cloud microphysical structure, verifying remote sensing data, improving cloud microphysical processes in numerical weather models and operating weather modification. Therefore, it is important to continuously develop new instrument with higher probing ability. This study introduces the principle of measurement, main performance index, calibration method and the application results of observational experiment for newly developed airborne cloud imager started in 2011. By repeated trials for several years, some key technologies such as beam homogenization, weak signal detection, multiplex parallel processing algorithm and particle diffraction elimination have been solved and greatly improved. The homogenization and consistence of optical power have been greatly increased. The mean optical power density in light spot is increased about three times, so that the imaging ability has been greatly improved. The higher resolution of linear photo diode array is used with high response speed, and this apparently increases the ability of small-size cloud particles. A series of basic tests of parameters, system optimization and environmental adaptation, and over 60 field flights have been conducted during the period of research and development of the instrument. The preliminary test results compared with the imported instrument in two flights on 5 November 2018 indicate that the accuracy of number concentration for small-size particles can increase up to one order of magnitudes. Meantime, the instrument has higher stability and reliability during the flight, and can correctly obtain clearer cloud habits.
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