陈红专,毛紫怡,陈静静. 2020. 中国近30年有/无大气河伴随的登陆台风气候学特征对比分析[J]. 气象学报, 78(5):745-760, doi:10.11676/qxxb2020.058
中国近30年有/无大气河伴随的登陆台风气候学特征对比分析
A comparative analysis of climatological characteristics of landing typhoons with and without atmospheric river in recent 30 years in China
投稿时间:2020-03-09  修订日期:2020-05-21
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2020.058
中文关键词:  大气河  登陆台风  气候学特征  动态合成
英文关键词:Atmospheric river  Landing typhoon  Climatological characteristics  Dynamic synthesis
基金项目:中澳双边气象科技合作国际项目(JW-16-4.1)、湖南省气象局重点项目(XQKJ16A001、XQKJ17D001)、湖南省气象局预报员专项(XQKJ19C004)
作者单位
陈红专 怀化市气象局怀化418000
气象防灾减灾湖南省重点实验室长沙410118 
毛紫怡 成都信息工程大学大气科学学院成都610103 
陈静静 气象防灾减灾湖南省重点实验室长沙410118
湖南省气象台长沙410007 
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中文摘要:
      利用JRA55再分析资料和近30年台风资料,采用动态合成分析方法对1986—2015年有/无大气河伴随的登陆台风大尺度环流和水汽场特征进行了合成分析,以探讨大气河对登陆台风演变的影响,主要结论如下:30年内登陆中国大陆的台风中,有大气河伴随和无大气河伴随的大约各占50%,平均陆上维持时间前者(38 h)长于后者(22.5 h)。有大气河伴随的台风登陆后,台风与副热带高压间的等高线密集,台风在中纬度槽前移动过程中有逐渐向斜压锋区靠近的趋势,而无大气河伴随的台风登陆后,台风与副热带高压间的等高线稀疏,也无长波槽靠近;有大气河伴随的台风登陆后,仍然与西南风低空急流和超低空急流水汽输送通道相连,台风涡旋区大风核伸展高度高,而无大气河伴随的台风登陆后与强水汽通道断开;登陆台风是水汽汇的一个高值中心,夏季印度季风环流和南海夏季风是向台风输送水汽的主要通道。有大气河伴随的台风,水汽输送速度的大小和辐合的强度明显大于无大气河伴随的台风,且其水汽辐合呈准对称结构,而无大气河伴随的台风其水汽辐合呈不对称结构,北侧的冷性强水汽输送会加速台风的填塞;有大气河伴随的台风登陆后,其南边界一直维持较强的水汽输送,台风区域总的水汽收入减小缓慢,而无大气河伴随的台风登陆后,台风区域总的水汽收入迅速减小;从垂直分布来看,有大气河伴随的台风在登陆后48 h内,其低层气旋式环流结构较完整,4个边界均有净的水汽输入,随着高度升高结构趋于松散。而无大气河伴随的台风在登陆24 h后其气旋式环流结构已不完整。
英文摘要:
      This study uses analysis method to analyze the characteristics of large-scale circulation and water vapor field of landing typhoons with and without the support of atmospheric river (AR) from 1986 to 2015 based on the JRA55 reanalysis and archived typhoon data. The main conclusions are as follows. Of the typhoons that landed on the mainland China within the 30 year period, the numbers of the typhoons with AR and without AR are roughly equal, and the average duration of the former (38 h) is longer than the latter (22.5 h). After the typhoon with AR support landed, the contour lines of the geopotential height over the typhoon and the subtropical high were very dense, and the typhoon tended to gradually approach the baroclinic front zone as it moved toward the mid-latitude trough. For the typhoon without AR support, the contour lines of geopotential height over the typhoon and the subtropical high were sparse, and there was no support of approaching long wave trough. After the typhoon with AR support landed, it was still connected with the southwesterly low-level jet, and the strong wind core of the typhoon vortex wet area expanded upward. In contrast, the typhoon without AR support was disconnected from the strong water vapor channel after landing. Landing typhoon is a high-value center of water vapor sink. The Indian monsoon circulation in summer and the South China Sea summer monsoon are the main channels for transporting water vapor into the typhoon. For the typhoon with AR support, the magnitude of water vapor transport and the intensity of the convergence were significantly larger than that of the typhoon without AR support, and the water vapor convergence had a quasi-symmetric structure. The typhoon without AR support had an asymmetric structure, and the colder and stronger water vapor transport on its north side accelerated the filling of the typhoon. After the typhoon with AR support landed, a strong water vapor transport always maintained on its southern boundary, and the total water vapor income in the typhoon region decreased slowly. For the typhoon without AR support, the total water vapor income in the typhoon region decreased rapidly. From the perspective of vertical distribution, within 48 h after landing, the typhoon with AR support still had a relatively complete low-level cyclonic circulation structure, and there was net water vapor input along the four boundaries. The cyclonic structure tended to become loose with increasing altitude. The cyclonic circulation structure of the typhoon without AR support was incomplete after 24 h of landing.
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